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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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  • View192

    Desalinization Effect of Off-season Crop Cultivation in Long-term Oriental Melon Cultivated Plastic Film House Soils

    Il-Su Byeon, Jong-Bae Chung / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.4, 253-259

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.4.39
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    BACKGROUND:

    During the off-season, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage and water dropwort is often used to desalinize plastic film house soils. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of double-cropping systems on the salt removal in oriental melon cultivated plastic film house soils.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Electrical conductivity (EC) and soluble salt contents were measured in soils collected from plastic film houses of oriental melon cultivation before and after the off-season crop cultivation. Also the same measurements were performed in the next oriental melon season to estimate the desalinization effect of double-cropping systems. During the cultivation of Chinese cabbage under open-field condition, ECe of surface soil was reduced from 6.0 to 0.8 dS/m. Double-cropping of water dropwort in flooded soil was also efficient in removing the salts accumulated during oriental melon cultivation. In the house soils where salts were removed during the off-season crop cultivation, soil ECe was maintained below 3 dS/m during the next oriental melon cultivation season.

    CONCLUSION:

    The off-season cropping under open-field or flooded condition was effective in desalinization of plastic film house soils. Since the salt removal effect is not expected to last for several years, the double-cropping system should be introduced every season to maintain soil EC below the critical level.

  • View174

    The applicability of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) as a substitute for nitrogen fertilizer

    Min-Suk Kim, Hyungi Min, Sun-Hee Hong, Jeong-Gyu Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.1, 1-5

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.06
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    BACKGROUND:

    Burcucumber(Sicyos angulatus L.) is an invasive plant species and disturbs ecosystems in Korea. The main method for prevention of burcucumber is cutting or pulling out. However, the studies accounting for the use of the by-product of burcucumber after cutting remain incomplete. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of burcucumber as a substitute for nitrogen fertilizer.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Burcucmber plants only including stem, leaves, and petiole were collected from the Sky Park in Seoul and divided in to three categories based on the length of stem of burcucumber; 10-30 cm, 30-100 cm, and 100-200 cm. And they were input into soil with 20 kg-N/10 a. After 4 weeks aging, chemical properties of treated soils and the productivity of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) were examined. Both the inorganic nitrogen contents in soils and the growth of lettuce were increased with the decreases in length of burcucumber standing for young plant. And the inorganic nitrogen content and the productivity of lettuce were positively correlated(r= 0.9409).

    CONCLUSION:

    The C/N ratio of burcucumber was low, indicating fast decomposition and nitrogen supplying rate, resulting in the increase in lettuce growth. Burcucumber could be a good substitute for nitrogen organic fertilizer.

  • View143

    A Research of Soil Environmental Health in Urban Garden, Gwangju

    Gil-Sik Jang, Yun-Hee Kim, Young-Seop Choi, Seung-Ho Kim, Jong-Min Kim, Seok-Jin Bae, Young-Gwan Cho, Tae-Hyoung Koo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 87-96

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.14
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    BACKGROUND:

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the soil quality to cultivate crops in urban garden.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    During the period of six month from March to August 2015, measured eight heavy metals, seven Organic items and Fluorine on seventeen urban sites and thirty-one suburban sites in Gwangju city.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The average concentration and range of heavy metal in soil are 0.15 mg/kg(ND-0.6) for Cd, 14.9 mg/kg(1.5-33.3) for Cu, 4.4 mg/kg(0.4-71.8) for As, 0.05 mg/kg(ND-1.366) for Hg, 24.7 mg/kg(13.1-62.7) for Pb, 102.5 mg/kg(49.1-276.4) for Zn and 9.2 mg/kg(ND-90.1) for Ni but Cr6+ is not detected. The average value and range of soil fertility items are 253.5mg/kg(76.6-1766.0) for fluorine, 6.4(4.8-7.7) for pH, 20.3 g/kg(5.0-44.0) for orangic matters, 562.7 mg/kg (28.0-1672.0) for available phosphate, 0.6 cmol+/kg (0.1-2.3) for K, 9.7 cmol+/kg (2.7-22.0) for Ca, 3.0 cmol+/kg (0.9-7.4) for Mg, 1.0 ds/m(0.2-2.9) for conductivity. The concentration of Hg in Suburban area is 0.005 mg/kg lower than 0.134 mg/kg in urban area. Also, the concentration of As, Cd, Ni and Zn is lower than urban area as 32%, 37%, 51%, 71% respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    According to SPI index of soil contamination, 39 sites are first degree and 8 sites are second degree and 1 site(41th) is fourth degree. Pb and Cd are not detected and As is detected tiny amounts in plants grown polluted soil, so heavy metals have not moved to plants.

  • View80

    Adsorption Characteristics of Aqueous Ammonium Using Rice hull-Derived Biochar

    Yong-Su Choi, Joung-Du Shin, Sun-Il Lee, Sung-Chul Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.3, 155-160

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.3.25
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    BACKGROUND

    Objective of this study was to investigate adsorption characteristics of NH4-N to biochar produced from rice hull in respective to mitigation of greenhouse gases.

    METHODS AND RESULTS

    NH4-N concentration was analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. For adsorption experiment of NH4-N to biochar, input amount of biochar was varied from 0.4 to 10 g/L with 30 mg/L NH4-N solution. Its adsorption characteristic was investigated with application of Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption amount and removal rates of NH4-N were decreased at 53.9% and increased at 20.2% with 10 g/L compared to 0.4 g/L, respectively. The sorption of NH4-N to biochar produced from rice hull was fitted well by a Langmuir model. The largest adsorption amount of NH4-N (qm) and binding strength constant (b) were calculated as 0.4980 mg/g, and 0.0249 L/mg, respectively. It was observed that dimensionless constant (RL) was 0.58.

    CONCLUSION

    It was indicated that biochar produced from rice hull is favorably absorbed NH4-N, because this value lie within 0<RL<1.

  • View73

    Effect of Phosphate Application on Cadmium Extractability and its Uptake by Rice Cultivated in Contaminated Paddy Soil

    Hyun Ho Lee, Keun Ki Kim, Yong Bok Lee, Youn Sig Kwak, Suk Chul Kim, Sang-beom Lee, Chang Ki Shim, Chang Oh Hong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.4, 235-240

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.4.35
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    BACKGROUND:

    To determine effect of phosphate (P) application on Cadmium (Cd) extractability and its uptake by rice plant in Cd contaminated paddy soil, dipotassium (K2HPO4) which was the most effective of P materials to decrease Cd extractability in previous study was selected as P fertilizer.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Dipotassium phosphate was applied at the rates of 0, 78, 234, and 390 kg P2O5/ha, and then rice was cultivated in submerged paddy soil from Jun. to Oct. in 2015. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw, and root of rice plant decreased significantly with increasing application rate of K2HPO4. The trend of 1 M NH4OAc extractable Cd concentration in soil was similar to that of Cd uptake by rice plant. One M NH4OAc extractable Cd concentration was negatively related to soil pH and negative charge. Alleviation of Cd phytoavailability of rice in paddy soil might be attributed to increase in pH and negative charge of soil. Using a quadratic response model, amount of grain yield were related to K2HPO4 application rates as Grain yield = 5.38 + 2.39 ×10-3 K2HPO4 – 6.65 × 10-6 K2HPO4 2 (model R2 = 0.968). Using this equations, the greatest grain yield (5.6 Mg/ha) was at the rate of 180 kg P2O5/ha. At this application rate of P, the Cd concentration in grain was 0.53 mg/kg, implying ca. 23% lower than the control.

    CONCLUSION:

    From the view point of heavy metal safety and crop productivity, it might be good P management to apply P fertilizer with 4 times higher rate than recommendation (45 kg/ha).

  • View41

    Effect of Carbonized Biomass Derived from Pruning on Soil Carbon Pools in Pear Orchard

    Sun-il Lee, Jong-sik Lee, Gun-yeob Kim, Eun-jung Choi, Sang-uk Suh, Un-Sung Na / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.3, 159-165

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.3.26
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    BACKGROUND:

    Carbonized biomass is increasingly used as a tool of soil carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil carbon storage to application of carbonized biomass derived from pear tree pruning.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The carbonized biomass was a mobile pyrolyzer with field scale, which a reactor was operated about 400~500℃ for 5 hours. The treatments were consisted of a control without input of carbonized biomass and two levels of carbonized biomass inputs as 6.06 Mg/ha, C-1 and 12.12 Mg/ha, C-2. It was shown that the soil carbon pools were 49.3 Mg/ha for C-1, 57.8 Mg/ha for C-2 and 40.1 Mg/ha for the control after experimental periods. The contents of accumulated soil carbon pool were significantly (P < 0.001) increased with enhancing the carbonized biomass input amount. The slopes (1.496) of the regression equations are suggested that carbon storage from the soil was increased about 0.1496 Mg/ha with every 100 kg/ha of carbonized biomass input amount.

    CONCLUSION:

    Our results suggest that application of carbonized biomass would be increased the soil carbon contents due to a highly stable C-matrix of carbonized biomass. More long-term studies are needed to be proved how long does carbon stay in orchard soils.

  • View41

    Effects of Alternative Crops Cultivation on Soil Physico-chemical Characteristics and Crop Yield in Paddy Fields

    Kyunghwa Han, Hyunjun Cho, Heerae Cho, Hyubsung Lee, Junghun Ok, Mijin Seo, Kangho Jung, Yongseon Zhang, Youngho Seo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.2, 67-72

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.2.11
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    BACKGROUND:

    Cultivation of alternative crops in paddy fields is necessary because of the decrease in rice consumption and the increase in excess stock of rice. The studywas conducted to investigate the effects of alternative crops cultivation in paddy fields on soil physico-chemical characteristics and crop yield.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Soybean (Glycine max), red-clover (Trifolium pratense), and water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) were selected for alternative crops in the first and/or second year and ricewas planted in the third year.When alternative cropswere cultivated in the previous year, soil bulk density, soil hardness, and water content were lower than those for rice cultivation. Water-depth decreasing rate and aggregate content were greater for the upland-upland-paddy cropping system than upland-paddy-paddy cropping system. Cultivation of red-clover andwater convolvulus for two years resulted in the high soil organic matter content. In the third year, available phosphate, exchangeable potassium, and soil cation exchange capacity were relatively high when soybean was cultivated in the previous year. In the first year, water convolvulus cultivation showed greater productivity than red-clover cultivation while the opposite pattern was found in the second year. Rice yield in the third year was greater for soybean or red-clover as a previous crop than for water convolvulus as a previous crop.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results suggest that cultivation of alternative crops in paddy fields can improve soil physical properties including bulk density, hardness, water content, and aggregate content as well as rice productivity.

  • View37

    Relative Effectiveness of Bone Meal as a Phosphorus Fertilizer Compared with Fused Phosphate

    Jong-Bae Chung, Byeong-Ryong Jeong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.1, 1-6

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.1.01
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    BACKGROUND:

    Bone meal is commonly used as a phosphorus (P) fertilizer in organic farming. Effectiveness of bone meal was compared with mineral P fertilizer to elucidate the optimum application rates of bone meal in crop production.

    METHODSANDRESULTS:

    The effects of bonemeal and fused phosphate on plant growth and P uptake were determined in a pot experimentwithmaize (Zeamays L.) in a clay loam soil. Bone meal and fused phosphate were applied at 150 and 300 mg P2O5/kg soil, and maize was grown for 3 consecutive growth periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. As compared with fused phosphate, total shoot growth of maize per pot was 3-6% lower in bone meal fertilization, and the difference was not significant in the application of 300 mg P2O5/kg. At the same P application rate, uptake of P by maize plants was 7-9% lower in bone meal treatment. The P use efficiency in bone meal treatments ranged from11.9-13.6%, equivalent to 73-84% of the efficiency for fused phosphate treatments.

    CONCLUSION:

    The equivalence of immediate effectiveness of bone meal as a P fertilizer was at least 90% compared with fused phosphate in the pot experimentwithmaize. The results indicate that bone meal could be a reasonable alternative to chemical P fertilizers.

  • View35

    The Applicability of the Acid Mine Drainage Sludge in the Heavy Metal Stabilization in Soils

    Min-Suk Kim, Hyungi Min, Byeongjoo Lee, Sein Chang, Jeong-Gyu Kim, Namin Koo, Jeong-Sik Park, Gwan-In Bak / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2014 / v.33, no.2, 78-85

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.78
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    BACKGROUND:

    Recent studies using various industrial wastes for heavy metal stabilization in soil were conducted in order to find out new alternative amendments. The acid mine drainage sludge(AMDS) contains lots of metal oxides(hydroxides) that may be useful for heavy metal stabilization not only waste water treatment but also soil remediation. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of acid mine drainage sludge for heavy metals stabilization in soils

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Alkali soil contaminated with heavy metals was collected from the agricultural soils affected by the abandoned mine sites nearby. Three different amounts(1%, 3%, 5%) of AMDS were applied into control soil and contaminated soil. For determining the changes in the extractable heavy metals, CaCl2 and Mehlich-3 were applied as chemical assessments for metal stabilization. For biological assessments, lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) and chinese cabbage(Brassica rapa var. glabra) were cultivated and accumulation of heavy metals on each plant were determined. It was revealed that AMDS reduced heavy metal mobility and bioavailability in soil, which resulted in the decreases in the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in each plant.

    CONCLUSION:

    Though the high level of heavy metal concentrations in AMDS, any considerable increase in the heavy metal availability was not observed with control and contaminated soil. In conclusion, these results indicated that AMDS could be applied to heavy metal contaminated soil as an alternative amendments for reducing heavy metal mobility and bioavailability.

  • View27

    Free Amino Acid Composition of Korean Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Cultivars as Influenced by Different Harvesting Time

    Young-Eun Yoon, Saranya Kuppusamy, Song Yeob Kim, Jang Hwan Kim, Yong Bok Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 104-110

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.21
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    BACKGROUND:

    There is lack of comprehensive compositional data of the amino acid profile of spinach with regard to different cultivars. A more detailed knowledge in this aspect will be of benefit in the future selection of spinach genotypes with improved nutritional quality.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The effects of cultivar type (Jeoncheonhu, Sagyejul, Namdongcho and Mustang) and harvest time (79th, 116th and 145th days after sowing or DAS) on the concentrations of free amino acids in field-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were examined. About 35 different free amino acids were detected and quantified by the amino acid analyzer. Glutamic acid and proline were identified as the major amino acids, while α -aminoadipic acid and α-aminobutyric acid were present in much lower concentrations. Spinach constituted 1468.4 mg/100 g total free amino acids (TAA), of which essential amino acids, neutral/acidic amino acids and sulphur containing amino acids constituted around 15, 45 and 2% of the TAA, respectively. The most limiting amino acids among the leafy vegetables – cysteine was recorded only in Mustang harvested at 116 DAS. Free amino acid contents did not differ significantly among the spinach cultivars and also at different harvest times.

    CONCLUSION:

    The data show that, either of the spinach cultivars, preferably Mustang harvested on or after 116 DAS can serve as a significant source of nutritionally relevant amino acids to meet the demand of the growing populations.

  • View25

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Residues in Greenhouse Soil and Strawberry Organochlorine Pesticides

    Sung-Jin Lim, Young-Tak Oh, You-Sung Jo, Jin-Ho Ro, Geun-Hyoung Choi, Ji-Yeon Yang, Byung-Jun Park / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.1, 6-14

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.05
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    BACKGROUND:

    Residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effect to human health and the environment. They were designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by Stockholm Convention. Greenhouse strawberry is economic crop in agriculture, and its cultivation area and yield has been increased. Therefore, we tried to investigate the POPs residue in greenhouse soil and strawberry.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Extraction and clean-up method for the quantitative analysis of OCPs was developed and validated by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD). The clean-up method was established using the modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe(QuEChERS) method for OCPs in soil and strawberry. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) and recovery rates of OCPs in greenhouse soil and strawberry were 0.9-6.0 and 0.6-0.9 μg/kg, 74.4-115.6 and 75.6-88.4%, respectively. The precision was reliable sincerelative standard deviation (RSD) percentage (0.5-3.7 and 2.9-5.2%) was below 20, which was the normal percent value. The residue of OCPs in greenhouse soil was analyzed by the developed method, and dieldrin, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate were detected at 1.6-23, 2.2-28.4 and 1.8-118.6 μg/kg, respectively. Those in strawberry were not detected in all samples.

    CONCLUSION:

    Dieldrin, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in a part of investigated greenhouse soil were detected. But those were not detected in investigated greenhouse strawberry. These results showed that the residue in greenhouse soil were lower level than bioaccumulation occurring.

  • View24

    Effect of Phyllite Application on Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil, Growth and Inorganic Nutrient Uptake of Crops

    Hyun-Tae Kim, Se-Won Kang, Dong-Cheol Seo, Sung-Dong Moon, Ju-Sik Cho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 97-103

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.20
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    BACKGROUND:

    Clay mineral is well known to improve physico-chemical of soil. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth characteristics and inorganic nutrient contents of crops with application levels of phyllite.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Both young radish and lettuce were selected as target crops for this study. The experiment was conducted in a wagner pot(1/5000a) in glass house at Sunchon National University. Treatment conditions were divided P0NPK(No phyllite + NPK), P5NPK(phyllite 5 Mg/ha + NPK), P10NPK(phyllite 10 Mg/ha + NPK) and P15NPK(phyllite 15 Mg/ha + NPK) by crops, respectively. Bulk density and porosity of soil in control without treatment conditions were ranged from 1.02 ∼1.04 g/cm3 and 56.5∼57.0%, respectively, and those for treatments with phyllite were in the ranged from 0.94∼1.00 g/cm3 and 58.4∼63.5%, respectively. Dry weights of young radish and lettuce were higher in P15NPK treatment than those in other treatments. The amounts of T-N, T-P and K uptake in young radish with phyllite application treatments were increased 36∼115, 18∼67 and 20∼76% than without phyllite application treatment, respectively. In lettuce treatments, amounts of T-N, T-P and K uptake were intended to all tested treatments similar with result of young radish treatment.

    CONCLUSION:

    Therefore, these results confirm that phyllite application to the soil improves physico-chemical of soil in addition to improving growth of young radish and lettuce.

  • View20

    Assessment of Human Bioavailability Quotient for the Heavy Metal in Paddy Soils Below Part of the Closed Metalliferous Mine

    Min-Kyeong Kim, Sung-Chang Hong, Myung-Hyun Kim, Soon-Kun Choi, Jong-Sik Lee, Kyu-Ho So, Goo-Bok Jung / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.3, 161-167

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.3.30
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    BACKGROUND

    For the heavy metal cotamination sites, it is very important to estimate the human bioavailability quotients for heavy metals in paddy soils released from mine tailings, which is a major source of contamination in Korea, and to assess the human health risks of heavy metals.

    METHODS AND RESULTS

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the human bioavailability quotient of the heavy metals in paddy soils below part of the closed metalliferous mine. For estimating the human bioavailability quotients for heavy metals, 30 paddy soils below part of the closed mine were collected, and analyzed for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and As using simple bioavailability extraction test(SBET). The quantities of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and As extracted from paddy soils below part of the mine by using the SBET analysis were 28.1, 17.3, 34.1, 14.6 and 2.3% respectively. Specially, the maximum values of Cd, Pb and Zn were 73.3, 81.5 and 58.1% of human bioavailability quotient, respectively, and varied considerably among the sampling sites. The human bioavailability quotient of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils near the closed mine showed significant positive correlation among soil pH value, O.M. and Ex. Ca. contents, while it correlated negatively between soil Ex. K and Ex. Mg contents in paddy soils. Also, its of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in paddy soils showed significant positive correlation with 0.1M HCl extractable and total contents, while in soils, it correlated negatively with As content in soil near the closed mine.

    CONCLUSION

    The results of the simple bioavailability extraction test (SBET) indicate that regular ingestion of soils by the local population could be closed a potential health threat due to long-term heavy metals exposure in these mine areas.

  • View20

    Ecological Characteristics of Vascular Plants by Habitat Types of Dry Field in Jeolla-do, Korea

    Kwang-Jin Cho, Myung-Hyun Kim, Min-Kyeong Kim, Young-Eun Na, Young-Ju Oh, Lak-Jung Choe / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2014 / v.33, no.2, 86-102

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.86
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    BACKGROUND:

    According to the types of human interference, there are various plants that have strong vitality and ability to breed in the dry field. Recently, climate change alters the geographical distribution and phenology of the plant species. So, we need to understand present occurrence pattern and ecological characteristics of these plants.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The plant species data were obtained from 8 regions in Jeolla-do. Flora investigation was done from May 2013 to September 2013. Habitat type of dry field in Jeolla-do was classified into 3 types (inside of dry field: IDF, embankment around the end of a dry field: EDF, levee slope of dry field: LS). The vascular plants of study area were listed 296 taxa which contain 68 families, 203 genera, 244 species, 43 varieties and 9 forms. The vascular plants of three different habitat types were IDF 174 taxa, EDF 249 taxa and LS 136 taxa. The occurrence rate of Therophyte was arranged by the order of IDF(67.6%), EDF(51.9%), LS(54.3%). Naturalized rate was analysed as IDF 27.9%, EDF 21.0%, LS 18.6%. Urbanization index was analysed as IDF 11.8%, EDF 13.7%, LS 10.0%.

    CONCLUSION:

    With these results, we found that three habitat types were ecological difference affected by the human impacts. Also, we found environmental indicators through the ecological characteristics of flora for the type of habitat of dry field. These indicators will help assess the agriculture environmental variability and the floral change according to the climate change in dry field.

  • View18

    Stability of Matrine and Oxymatrine from the Biopesticide from Sophora flavescens under Aquatic and Soil Environment

    Jin Hyo Kim, Geun-Hyoung Choi, Sung-Jin Lim, Byung-Jun Park / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.1, 1-5

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.1.01
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    BACKGROUND:

    The stabilities of the two alkaloidal insecticides of S. flavescens including matrine and oxymatrine are important factor to establish expiry date and usage manual for crop protection. However, the environmental stability of the compounds had not been studied with the extract and its commercial biopesticide.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The environmental stabilities of the two alkaloids were performed with extract of S. flavescens, and its two commercial biopesticides both in controlled aquatic and soil conditions. The half-lives of the total matrines for the extract and its two commercial biopesticides were estimated over 200 days both under aerobic and anaerobic water condition. Under dry soil condition, the initial decay rates of the matrines were calculated 0.0804-0.1275 (t1/2 5.4-8.6 days), and the half-lives under wet soil condition were calculated 33.0-231 days. Total soil bacteria on the wet soil ranged 6.0-8.0 log CFU/g-soil during the experiments period.

    CONCLUSION:

    The aquatic mixture of the extract showed excellent stability both with the extract and its biopesticides, however, the stability of soil mixture were shorter than the aquatic mixture, suggesting that soil metal consider as a catalyst for the degradation of the two alkaloids.

  • View18

    Monitoring of Pesticides in the Yeongsan and Seomjin River Basin

    Young-Jun Lee, Jeong-Heui Choi, Sang Don Kim, Hee-Jung Jung, Hyung-Jin Lee, Jae-Han Shim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.4, 274-281

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.4.37
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    BACKGROUND:

    A lasting release of low levels of persistence chemicals including pesticides and pharmaceuticals into river has a bad influence on aquatic ecosystems and humans. The present study monitored pesticide residues in the Yeongsan and Seomjin river basins and their tributaries as a fundamental study for water quality standard of pesticides.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Nine pesticides(aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, 2,4-D, MCPA, methomyl, metolachlor, and molinate) were determined from water samples using SPE-Oasis HLB(pH 2) and LC/MS/MS. Validation of the method was conducted through matrix-matched internal calibration curve, method detection limit(MDL), limit of quantification(LOQ), accuracy, precision, and recovery. MDLs of all pesticides satisfied the GV/10 values. Linearity(r2) was 0.9965- 0.9999, and a percentage of accuracy, precision, and recovery was 89.4-113.6%, 3.1-14.0%, and 90.8-106.2%, respectively. All pesticides exclusive of aldicarb were determined in the river samples, and there was a connection between the positive monitoring results and agricultural use of the pesticides.

    CONCLUSION:

    Monitoring outcomes of the present study implied that pesticides were a possible non-point pollutant source in the Yeongsan and Seomjin river basins and tributaries. Therefore, it is required to produce and accumulate more monitoring results on pesticides in river waters to set water quality standards, finally to preserve aquatic ecosystems.

  • View18

    Determination of Analytical Method for the Insecticide Clothianidin and its Metabolites in Soil and Surface Water

    Young-Joon Choi, Chan-Hyeok Kwon, Byung-Soo Han, Young-Deuk Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2014 / v.33, no.2, 69-77

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.69
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    BACKGROUND:

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of clothianidin on the soil in terms of clothianidin dissipation and degradation to evaluate its safety in order to provide an analytical foundation for clothianidin and the 5 metabolites related to it.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    High-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to separate clothianidin and its metabolites in this study. In soil, after suppressing dissociation-proned ions with weak alkalic NH4OH and extracting the metabolites with methanol, clothianidin, Methylaminoimidazole(MAI), Methylnitroguanidine(MNG), Thiazolylmethylurea(TZMU) and Thiazolylnitroguanidine(TZNG). Thiazolylmethylguanidine(TMG) were extracted with the addition of neutral NH4OAC to increasing the intensity of ions. Compounding elements were separated by using Hydrometrix (ChemElutTM) and ion-exchanging Solid-phase extraction(SPE) Strong cation-exchanger(SCX) and C18 were used. The recovery rates of clothianidin and 5 metabolites in soil and water ranged from 87.4% to 104.3%. A standard deviation of our analysis for the soil and water samples were less than 5%.

    CONCLUSION:

    Well accepted detection limits for clothianidin and 5 metabolites in soil samples based on a dissipation analysis is 0.005 mg/kg and 0.001 mg/L in water samples. The dissipation concentration of this study was decided to be enough to evaluate the dissipation levels of clothianidin and its metabolites.

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    Effects of Expeller Cake Fertilizer on Soil Properties and Tah Tasai Chinese Cabbage Yield in Organic Greenhouse Farm

    Kab-Cheol Kim, Byung-Koo Ahn, Do-Young Ko, Ju Kim, Seong-Soo Jeong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2014 / v.33, no.3, 149-154

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.3.149
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    BACKGROUND:

    To evaluate the application level of expeller cake fertilizer(ECF), we have investigated soil chemical properties, leaf mineral contents and yield of tah tasai Chinese cabbage in a plastic film greenhouse.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Five levels of fertilizer were applied as 0%(ECF 0), 50%(ECF 50), 75%(ECF 75), 100% (ECF 100) and 150%(ECF 150) by base 1,848 kg/ha of ECF. In 2012, tah tasai Chinese cabbage was planted on April 28 in a silt loam soil and harvested on July 12. Commercial yields were measured 10 times from May 10 to July 12. Electrical conductivity (2.24~3.09 dS/m), available P2O5(484~581 mg/kg) and exchangeable cations(K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were tended to increase by the application of ECF. However, the range of those was not significant. The contents of T-N, K, Ca and P of tah tasai Chinese cabbage leaves were 62.2~66.5 g/kg, 44.3~48.7 g/kg, 5.1~5.9 g/kg and 5.6~6.2 g/kg, respectively. The nitrogen utilization rate of tah tasai Chinese cabbage was 39.4~51.6%, and it was decreased with increased application amount of ECF. The yield of tah tasai Chinese cabbage was 9,806 to 12,730 kg/ha on the basis of application amount of ECF and it was not increased in spite of increased ECF.

    CONCLUSION:

    The optimum dose of application of ECF for cultivation of tah tasai Chinese cabbage was ranged from 924 kg/ha(as ECF 50) to 1,386 kg/ha(as ECF 75). Environment-friendly and economical amount of applied fertilizer is more important than yield for cultivation of tah tasai Chinese cabbage.

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    Contamination Sources of Several Potentially Hazardous Compounds Found at the Gap Stream and the Miho Stream, Two Major Tributaries of the Geum River

    Jun-Bae Lee, Jay-Jung Lee, Yoon-Hae Cho, Jo-Hee Yoon, Seoun-Hwa Hong, Dae-Hee Lee, Dae-Hee Lee, Young-Hwan Cho, Ho-Sang Shin / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.1, 15-23

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.02
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    BACKGROUND:

    Water quality is of concern to water utility operators, public health officials, and populations using the water. If any contaminant is released from a point of entry, it could be spread rapidly throughout the water stream. So the identification of the location of the points of entry and its release history are critical informations to establish the management strategy.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Aniline, nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and formaldehyde in 39 surface water samples were analysed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Formaldehyde, aniline and nonylphenol were mainly detected in the near sites where industrial waste water and domestic sewage were discharged into stream. But pentachlorophenol was detected in the downstream samples where pulp manufacturing plants were operated.

    CONCLUSION:

    Results indicate that pentachlorophenol found in main stream of Guem river was mainly introduced from pulp manufacture industries. Otherwise, formaldehyde, aniline and nonylphenol were mainly contaminated from the industrial waste water and domestic sewage.

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    Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions for Pesticide mixtures to Honeybee Larvae Toxicity

    Min Kyoung Paik, Jeong Taek Im, Kyongmi Chon, Kyung-Hun Park, Yong-Soo Choi, Myeong-Lyeol Lee, Chul-Han Bae, Jin-Ho Kim, Byeong Chul Moon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.4, 241-246

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.4.32
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    BACKGROUND:

    Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides in the hive has been of concern about pesticide exposure on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) health. Larval toxicity was adapted to assess the synergistic and antagonistic interaction of cumulative mortality to the honeybee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Acetamiprid(3.0 ㎕/L), chlorothalonil (803.0 ㎕/L), coumaphos (128.0 ㎕/L), and tau-fluvalinate (123.0 ㎕/L) were tested in combination; binary, ternary and four component mixture. Larvae were exposed to four pesticides mixed in diet at the average levels detected in pollen. As a result, synthetic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of acetamiprid with coumaphos. The binary and ternary component mixtures of tested pesticides have mostly demonstrated additive effect in larval bees. The significant antagonistic effects were found in four parings of mixtures including chlorothalonil added to acetamiprid/tau-fluvalinate or acetamiprid/coumaphos/tau-fluvalinate, and tau-fluvalinate added to acetamiprid/chlorothalonil or acetamiprid/coumaphos/chlorothalonil.

    CONCLUSION:

    Interactions between combinations of four pesticides showed mostly additive or antagonistic effects in larval bees. Therefore, predicting the larval mortality of pesticides mixtures on the basis of the results of single pesticide may actually overestimate the risk. We suggest that pesticide mixture in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicity together for complete data on interactions.