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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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  • Download91

    The applicability of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) as a substitute for nitrogen fertilizer

    Min-Suk Kim, Hyungi Min, Sun-Hee Hong, Jeong-Gyu Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.1, 1-5

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.06
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    BACKGROUND:

    Burcucumber(Sicyos angulatus L.) is an invasive plant species and disturbs ecosystems in Korea. The main method for prevention of burcucumber is cutting or pulling out. However, the studies accounting for the use of the by-product of burcucumber after cutting remain incomplete. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of burcucumber as a substitute for nitrogen fertilizer.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Burcucmber plants only including stem, leaves, and petiole were collected from the Sky Park in Seoul and divided in to three categories based on the length of stem of burcucumber; 10-30 cm, 30-100 cm, and 100-200 cm. And they were input into soil with 20 kg-N/10 a. After 4 weeks aging, chemical properties of treated soils and the productivity of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) were examined. Both the inorganic nitrogen contents in soils and the growth of lettuce were increased with the decreases in length of burcucumber standing for young plant. And the inorganic nitrogen content and the productivity of lettuce were positively correlated(r= 0.9409).

    CONCLUSION:

    The C/N ratio of burcucumber was low, indicating fast decomposition and nitrogen supplying rate, resulting in the increase in lettuce growth. Burcucumber could be a good substitute for nitrogen organic fertilizer.

  • Download81

    A Research of Soil Environmental Health in Urban Garden, Gwangju

    Gil-Sik Jang, Yun-Hee Kim, Young-Seop Choi, Seung-Ho Kim, Jong-Min Kim, Seok-Jin Bae, Young-Gwan Cho, Tae-Hyoung Koo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 87-96

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.14
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    BACKGROUND:

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the soil quality to cultivate crops in urban garden.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    During the period of six month from March to August 2015, measured eight heavy metals, seven Organic items and Fluorine on seventeen urban sites and thirty-one suburban sites in Gwangju city.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The average concentration and range of heavy metal in soil are 0.15 mg/kg(ND-0.6) for Cd, 14.9 mg/kg(1.5-33.3) for Cu, 4.4 mg/kg(0.4-71.8) for As, 0.05 mg/kg(ND-1.366) for Hg, 24.7 mg/kg(13.1-62.7) for Pb, 102.5 mg/kg(49.1-276.4) for Zn and 9.2 mg/kg(ND-90.1) for Ni but Cr6+ is not detected. The average value and range of soil fertility items are 253.5mg/kg(76.6-1766.0) for fluorine, 6.4(4.8-7.7) for pH, 20.3 g/kg(5.0-44.0) for orangic matters, 562.7 mg/kg (28.0-1672.0) for available phosphate, 0.6 cmol+/kg (0.1-2.3) for K, 9.7 cmol+/kg (2.7-22.0) for Ca, 3.0 cmol+/kg (0.9-7.4) for Mg, 1.0 ds/m(0.2-2.9) for conductivity. The concentration of Hg in Suburban area is 0.005 mg/kg lower than 0.134 mg/kg in urban area. Also, the concentration of As, Cd, Ni and Zn is lower than urban area as 32%, 37%, 51%, 71% respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    According to SPI index of soil contamination, 39 sites are first degree and 8 sites are second degree and 1 site(41th) is fourth degree. Pb and Cd are not detected and As is detected tiny amounts in plants grown polluted soil, so heavy metals have not moved to plants.

  • Download51

    Effects of Alternative Crops Cultivation on Soil Physico-chemical Characteristics and Crop Yield in Paddy Fields

    Kyunghwa Han, Hyunjun Cho, Heerae Cho, Hyubsung Lee, Junghun Ok, Mijin Seo, Kangho Jung, Yongseon Zhang, Youngho Seo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.2, 67-72

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.2.11
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    BACKGROUND:

    Cultivation of alternative crops in paddy fields is necessary because of the decrease in rice consumption and the increase in excess stock of rice. The studywas conducted to investigate the effects of alternative crops cultivation in paddy fields on soil physico-chemical characteristics and crop yield.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Soybean (Glycine max), red-clover (Trifolium pratense), and water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) were selected for alternative crops in the first and/or second year and ricewas planted in the third year.When alternative cropswere cultivated in the previous year, soil bulk density, soil hardness, and water content were lower than those for rice cultivation. Water-depth decreasing rate and aggregate content were greater for the upland-upland-paddy cropping system than upland-paddy-paddy cropping system. Cultivation of red-clover andwater convolvulus for two years resulted in the high soil organic matter content. In the third year, available phosphate, exchangeable potassium, and soil cation exchange capacity were relatively high when soybean was cultivated in the previous year. In the first year, water convolvulus cultivation showed greater productivity than red-clover cultivation while the opposite pattern was found in the second year. Rice yield in the third year was greater for soybean or red-clover as a previous crop than for water convolvulus as a previous crop.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results suggest that cultivation of alternative crops in paddy fields can improve soil physical properties including bulk density, hardness, water content, and aggregate content as well as rice productivity.

  • Download48

    Free Amino Acid Composition of Korean Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Cultivars as Influenced by Different Harvesting Time

    Young-Eun Yoon, Saranya Kuppusamy, Song Yeob Kim, Jang Hwan Kim, Yong Bok Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 104-110

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.21
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    BACKGROUND:

    There is lack of comprehensive compositional data of the amino acid profile of spinach with regard to different cultivars. A more detailed knowledge in this aspect will be of benefit in the future selection of spinach genotypes with improved nutritional quality.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The effects of cultivar type (Jeoncheonhu, Sagyejul, Namdongcho and Mustang) and harvest time (79th, 116th and 145th days after sowing or DAS) on the concentrations of free amino acids in field-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were examined. About 35 different free amino acids were detected and quantified by the amino acid analyzer. Glutamic acid and proline were identified as the major amino acids, while α -aminoadipic acid and α-aminobutyric acid were present in much lower concentrations. Spinach constituted 1468.4 mg/100 g total free amino acids (TAA), of which essential amino acids, neutral/acidic amino acids and sulphur containing amino acids constituted around 15, 45 and 2% of the TAA, respectively. The most limiting amino acids among the leafy vegetables – cysteine was recorded only in Mustang harvested at 116 DAS. Free amino acid contents did not differ significantly among the spinach cultivars and also at different harvest times.

    CONCLUSION:

    The data show that, either of the spinach cultivars, preferably Mustang harvested on or after 116 DAS can serve as a significant source of nutritionally relevant amino acids to meet the demand of the growing populations.

  • Download48

    Desalinization Effect of Off-season Crop Cultivation in Long-term Oriental Melon Cultivated Plastic Film House Soils

    Il-Su Byeon, Jong-Bae Chung / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.4, 253-259

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.4.39
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    BACKGROUND:

    During the off-season, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage and water dropwort is often used to desalinize plastic film house soils. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of double-cropping systems on the salt removal in oriental melon cultivated plastic film house soils.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Electrical conductivity (EC) and soluble salt contents were measured in soils collected from plastic film houses of oriental melon cultivation before and after the off-season crop cultivation. Also the same measurements were performed in the next oriental melon season to estimate the desalinization effect of double-cropping systems. During the cultivation of Chinese cabbage under open-field condition, ECe of surface soil was reduced from 6.0 to 0.8 dS/m. Double-cropping of water dropwort in flooded soil was also efficient in removing the salts accumulated during oriental melon cultivation. In the house soils where salts were removed during the off-season crop cultivation, soil ECe was maintained below 3 dS/m during the next oriental melon cultivation season.

    CONCLUSION:

    The off-season cropping under open-field or flooded condition was effective in desalinization of plastic film house soils. Since the salt removal effect is not expected to last for several years, the double-cropping system should be introduced every season to maintain soil EC below the critical level.

  • Download45

    Effect of Carbonized Biomass Derived from Pruning on Soil Carbon Pools in Pear Orchard

    Sun-il Lee, Jong-sik Lee, Gun-yeob Kim, Eun-jung Choi, Sang-uk Suh, Un-Sung Na / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.3, 159-165

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.3.26
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    BACKGROUND:

    Carbonized biomass is increasingly used as a tool of soil carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil carbon storage to application of carbonized biomass derived from pear tree pruning.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The carbonized biomass was a mobile pyrolyzer with field scale, which a reactor was operated about 400~500℃ for 5 hours. The treatments were consisted of a control without input of carbonized biomass and two levels of carbonized biomass inputs as 6.06 Mg/ha, C-1 and 12.12 Mg/ha, C-2. It was shown that the soil carbon pools were 49.3 Mg/ha for C-1, 57.8 Mg/ha for C-2 and 40.1 Mg/ha for the control after experimental periods. The contents of accumulated soil carbon pool were significantly (P < 0.001) increased with enhancing the carbonized biomass input amount. The slopes (1.496) of the regression equations are suggested that carbon storage from the soil was increased about 0.1496 Mg/ha with every 100 kg/ha of carbonized biomass input amount.

    CONCLUSION:

    Our results suggest that application of carbonized biomass would be increased the soil carbon contents due to a highly stable C-matrix of carbonized biomass. More long-term studies are needed to be proved how long does carbon stay in orchard soils.

  • Download45

    Effect of Phyllite Application on Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil, Growth and Inorganic Nutrient Uptake of Crops

    Hyun-Tae Kim, Se-Won Kang, Dong-Cheol Seo, Sung-Dong Moon, Ju-Sik Cho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 97-103

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.20
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    BACKGROUND:

    Clay mineral is well known to improve physico-chemical of soil. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth characteristics and inorganic nutrient contents of crops with application levels of phyllite.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Both young radish and lettuce were selected as target crops for this study. The experiment was conducted in a wagner pot(1/5000a) in glass house at Sunchon National University. Treatment conditions were divided P0NPK(No phyllite + NPK), P5NPK(phyllite 5 Mg/ha + NPK), P10NPK(phyllite 10 Mg/ha + NPK) and P15NPK(phyllite 15 Mg/ha + NPK) by crops, respectively. Bulk density and porosity of soil in control without treatment conditions were ranged from 1.02 ∼1.04 g/cm3 and 56.5∼57.0%, respectively, and those for treatments with phyllite were in the ranged from 0.94∼1.00 g/cm3 and 58.4∼63.5%, respectively. Dry weights of young radish and lettuce were higher in P15NPK treatment than those in other treatments. The amounts of T-N, T-P and K uptake in young radish with phyllite application treatments were increased 36∼115, 18∼67 and 20∼76% than without phyllite application treatment, respectively. In lettuce treatments, amounts of T-N, T-P and K uptake were intended to all tested treatments similar with result of young radish treatment.

    CONCLUSION:

    Therefore, these results confirm that phyllite application to the soil improves physico-chemical of soil in addition to improving growth of young radish and lettuce.

  • Download38

    Phytoremediation Potential of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), Mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) in Arsenic-contaminated Soil

    M. Uddin Nizam, M. Wahid-U-Zzaman, M. Mokhlesur Rahman, Jang-Eok Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 111-120

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.15
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    BACKGROUND:

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater used for long-term irrigation has emerged as a serious problem by adding As to soils. Phytoremediation potential of fiber crops viz., kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) was studied to clean up As-contaminated soil.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Varieties of three fiber crops were selected in this study. Seeds of kenaf, mesta, and jute varieties were germinated in As-contaminated soil. Uptake of As by shoot was significantly higher than that by root in the contaminated soil. In As-contaminated soil, kenaf and mesta varieties accumulated more As, than did jute varieties. In the plant parts above ground, mainly the shoots, the highest As absorption was recorded in kenaf cv. HC-3, followed by kenaf cv. HC-95. Kenaf varieties produced more biomass. In terms of higher plant biomass production, and As absorption, kenaf varieties showed considerable potential to remediate As-contaminated soil.

    CONCLUSION:

    The overall As absorption and phytoremediation potentiality of plant varieties were in the order of kenaf cv. HC-3 > kenaf cv. HC-95 > mesta cv. Samu-93 > jute cv. CVE-3 > jute cv. BJC-7370. All varieties of kenaf, mesta, and jute could be considered for an appropriate green plant-based remediation technology in As-contaminated soil.

  • Download35

    Monitoring of Veterinary Antibiotics in Agricultural Soils using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Young-Jun Lee, Jeong-Heui Choi, Hyung Suk Chung, Han Sol Lee, Byung-Jun Park, Jang-Eok Kim, Jae-Han Shim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.3, 166-174

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.3.29
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    BACKGROUND:

    The current study developed a monitoring method of 6 veterinary antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline) in agricultural soils using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive electrospray ionization mode.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Sample preparation was carried out using acidic acetonitrile and citrate salts followed by purification with dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE). Separation on Eclipse Plus C18 column was conducted in gradient of the mobile phase, 0.1% formic acid and 5 mM ammonium formate in methanol (A) and 0.1% formic acid and 5 mM ammonium formate in distilled water (B). The linearity of the matrix-matched calibrations expressed as the coefficient of determination was good with R2≥0.9900. The limit of quantifications (LOQs) ranged from 0.5 to 10 μg/kg for all analytes. Analysis of 51 agricultural soil samples taken in the Republic of Korea revealed concentrations less than 1.9 μg/kg for enrofloxacin, 75.5 μg/kg for chlortetracycline.

    CONCLUSION:

    The method was successfully applied to monitor 6 veterinary antibiotics from 51 field incurred agricultural soil samples in 17 provincial areas throughout the Republic of Korea. The developed method was simple, easy, and versatile and can be used for monitoring various veterinary antibiotics in soil.

  • Download34

    Monitoring of Pesticides in the Yeongsan and Seomjin River Basin

    Young-Jun Lee, Jeong-Heui Choi, Sang Don Kim, Hee-Jung Jung, Hyung-Jin Lee, Jae-Han Shim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.4, 274-281

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.4.37
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    BACKGROUND:

    A lasting release of low levels of persistence chemicals including pesticides and pharmaceuticals into river has a bad influence on aquatic ecosystems and humans. The present study monitored pesticide residues in the Yeongsan and Seomjin river basins and their tributaries as a fundamental study for water quality standard of pesticides.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Nine pesticides(aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, 2,4-D, MCPA, methomyl, metolachlor, and molinate) were determined from water samples using SPE-Oasis HLB(pH 2) and LC/MS/MS. Validation of the method was conducted through matrix-matched internal calibration curve, method detection limit(MDL), limit of quantification(LOQ), accuracy, precision, and recovery. MDLs of all pesticides satisfied the GV/10 values. Linearity(r2) was 0.9965- 0.9999, and a percentage of accuracy, precision, and recovery was 89.4-113.6%, 3.1-14.0%, and 90.8-106.2%, respectively. All pesticides exclusive of aldicarb were determined in the river samples, and there was a connection between the positive monitoring results and agricultural use of the pesticides.

    CONCLUSION:

    Monitoring outcomes of the present study implied that pesticides were a possible non-point pollutant source in the Yeongsan and Seomjin river basins and tributaries. Therefore, it is required to produce and accumulate more monitoring results on pesticides in river waters to set water quality standards, finally to preserve aquatic ecosystems.

  • Download33

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Residues in Greenhouse Soil and Strawberry Organochlorine Pesticides

    Sung-Jin Lim, Young-Tak Oh, You-Sung Jo, Jin-Ho Ro, Geun-Hyoung Choi, Ji-Yeon Yang, Byung-Jun Park / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.1, 6-14

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.05
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    BACKGROUND:

    Residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effect to human health and the environment. They were designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by Stockholm Convention. Greenhouse strawberry is economic crop in agriculture, and its cultivation area and yield has been increased. Therefore, we tried to investigate the POPs residue in greenhouse soil and strawberry.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Extraction and clean-up method for the quantitative analysis of OCPs was developed and validated by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD). The clean-up method was established using the modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe(QuEChERS) method for OCPs in soil and strawberry. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) and recovery rates of OCPs in greenhouse soil and strawberry were 0.9-6.0 and 0.6-0.9 μg/kg, 74.4-115.6 and 75.6-88.4%, respectively. The precision was reliable sincerelative standard deviation (RSD) percentage (0.5-3.7 and 2.9-5.2%) was below 20, which was the normal percent value. The residue of OCPs in greenhouse soil was analyzed by the developed method, and dieldrin, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate were detected at 1.6-23, 2.2-28.4 and 1.8-118.6 μg/kg, respectively. Those in strawberry were not detected in all samples.

    CONCLUSION:

    Dieldrin, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in a part of investigated greenhouse soil were detected. But those were not detected in investigated greenhouse strawberry. These results showed that the residue in greenhouse soil were lower level than bioaccumulation occurring.

  • Download32

    Effect of Phosphate Application on Cadmium Extractability and its Uptake by Rice Cultivated in Contaminated Paddy Soil

    Hyun Ho Lee, Keun Ki Kim, Yong Bok Lee, Youn Sig Kwak, Suk Chul Kim, Sang-beom Lee, Chang Ki Shim, Chang Oh Hong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.4, 235-240

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.4.35
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    BACKGROUND:

    To determine effect of phosphate (P) application on Cadmium (Cd) extractability and its uptake by rice plant in Cd contaminated paddy soil, dipotassium (K2HPO4) which was the most effective of P materials to decrease Cd extractability in previous study was selected as P fertilizer.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Dipotassium phosphate was applied at the rates of 0, 78, 234, and 390 kg P2O5/ha, and then rice was cultivated in submerged paddy soil from Jun. to Oct. in 2015. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw, and root of rice plant decreased significantly with increasing application rate of K2HPO4. The trend of 1 M NH4OAc extractable Cd concentration in soil was similar to that of Cd uptake by rice plant. One M NH4OAc extractable Cd concentration was negatively related to soil pH and negative charge. Alleviation of Cd phytoavailability of rice in paddy soil might be attributed to increase in pH and negative charge of soil. Using a quadratic response model, amount of grain yield were related to K2HPO4 application rates as Grain yield = 5.38 + 2.39 ×10-3 K2HPO4 – 6.65 × 10-6 K2HPO4 2 (model R2 = 0.968). Using this equations, the greatest grain yield (5.6 Mg/ha) was at the rate of 180 kg P2O5/ha. At this application rate of P, the Cd concentration in grain was 0.53 mg/kg, implying ca. 23% lower than the control.

    CONCLUSION:

    From the view point of heavy metal safety and crop productivity, it might be good P management to apply P fertilizer with 4 times higher rate than recommendation (45 kg/ha).

  • Download29

    The Effect of Bottom ash in Reducing Cadmium Phytoavailability in Cadmium-contaminated Soil

    Sung Un Kim, Yong Gyun Kim, Sang Mong Lee, Hyean Cheal Park, Keun Ki Kim, Hong Joo Son, Sung Wook Yun, Sang Yoon Kim, Chang Oh Hong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 152-157

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.19
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    BACKGROUND:

    Since bottom ash (BA) contains considerable amounts of CaO and MgO, it could be a useful amendment to increase soil pH and to immobilize cadmium (Cd). This study was conducted to evaluate effect of BA application in reducing Cd phytoavailability.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Bottom ash was applied at the rate of 0, 20, 40, and 80 Mg/ha to Cd contaminated soil, and then lettuce was cultivated under field condition. soil pH and net negative charge increased slightly with increasing BA application; however, there was no statistical difference among the rates. Water soluble, exchangeable+acidic, reducible, and oxidizable fraction of Cd decreased with increasing bottom ash application rate, whereas residual fraction of Cd increased with increasing bottom ash application rate. Lettuce yield increased with rate of bottom ash up to 40 kg/ha. Visual evidences of cadmium toxicity and growth inhibition were not found during lettuce cultivation.

    CONCLUSION:

    Bottom ash was effective to reduce phytoextractability of Cd and to increase lettuce yield. Conclusively, BA could be a good soil amendment to reduce Cd phytoavailability in contaminated arable soil.

  • Download29

    The Applicability of the Acid Mine Drainage Sludge in the Heavy Metal Stabilization in Soils

    Min-Suk Kim, Hyungi Min, Byeongjoo Lee, Sein Chang, Jeong-Gyu Kim, Namin Koo, Jeong-Sik Park, Gwan-In Bak / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2014 / v.33, no.2, 78-85

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.2.78
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    BACKGROUND:

    Recent studies using various industrial wastes for heavy metal stabilization in soil were conducted in order to find out new alternative amendments. The acid mine drainage sludge(AMDS) contains lots of metal oxides(hydroxides) that may be useful for heavy metal stabilization not only waste water treatment but also soil remediation. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of acid mine drainage sludge for heavy metals stabilization in soils

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Alkali soil contaminated with heavy metals was collected from the agricultural soils affected by the abandoned mine sites nearby. Three different amounts(1%, 3%, 5%) of AMDS were applied into control soil and contaminated soil. For determining the changes in the extractable heavy metals, CaCl2 and Mehlich-3 were applied as chemical assessments for metal stabilization. For biological assessments, lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) and chinese cabbage(Brassica rapa var. glabra) were cultivated and accumulation of heavy metals on each plant were determined. It was revealed that AMDS reduced heavy metal mobility and bioavailability in soil, which resulted in the decreases in the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in each plant.

    CONCLUSION:

    Though the high level of heavy metal concentrations in AMDS, any considerable increase in the heavy metal availability was not observed with control and contaminated soil. In conclusion, these results indicated that AMDS could be applied to heavy metal contaminated soil as an alternative amendments for reducing heavy metal mobility and bioavailability.

  • Download28

    Understanding Spatial Variations of Water Quality Using Agricultural Nutrient Indices in Chonnam Province

    Byeong-Jun Jeon, Sang-Sun Lim, Kwang-Seung Lee, Se-In Lee, Jong-Hyun Ham, Sun-Ho YooK, wang-Sik Yoon, Woo-Jung Choi / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2014 / v.33, no.1, 44-51

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2014.33.1.44
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    BACKGROUND:

    Water quality of rural areas are susceptible to agricultural nutrient input and supply such as chemical fertilizer and livestock manure. This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of nutrient (N and P) indices in understanding spatial variations of water quality across Chonnam province which is a typical agricultural region in Korea.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The nutrient indices including chemical fertilizer supply, livestock manure production, and nutrient balance were correlated with water quality data (T-N, T-P, BOD, and COD) for the twenty-two districts of the province. Concentration of T-N were positively correlated with chemical fertilizer supply, livestock manure N production, and nutrient balance (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Meanwhile, T-P concentration was not correlated with these nutrient indices; however, there was a tendency that T-P concentration increases with livestock manure P production (P=0.06) and with nutrient balance (P=0.09). These results suggest that T-N concentration is susceptible to both chemical fertilizer and livestock manure; whereas T-P is likely to be affected by livestock manure rather than chemical fertilizer. The concentrations of BOD and COD were also positively (P<0.05 or P<0.01) correlated with livestock manure production.

    CONCLUSION:

    This study shows the usefulness of nutrient indices in understanding spatial variations of water quality and suggests that livestock manure rather than chemical fertilizer can be a more critical water pollution source and thus highlights the need for more attention to livestock manure treatments for rural water quality management.

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    Compositions and Contents Anthocyanins in Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) Varieties

    Min-Ki Lee, Heon-Woong Kim, Seon-Hye Lee, Young Jin Kim, Hwan-Hee Jang, Hyun-Ah Jung, Yu-Jin Hwang, Jeong-Sook Choe, Jung-Bong Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.3, 184-190

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.3.25
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    BACKGROUND:

    Anthocyanins, potential health-promoting compounds, were major natural pigment in the blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). The objectives of this study was to investigate anthocyanin glycosides in the blueberry varieties.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    A total of seventeen anthocyanins were identified from highbush blueberry using HPLC (representatives, 530 nm) and ESI-MS in positive ion mode. The individual anthocyanins are containing cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin moieties which are acylated with aliphatic acid (acetic acid) and conjugated with sugar moieties (arabinose, galactose, and glucose). Among them, delphinidin 3-O-galactoside (D3Ga), peonidin 3-O-glucoside (Pn3G) + malvidin 3-O-galactoside (M3Ga) were major compounds in varieties. Total anthocyanins were found the highest level in 'Elizabeth' (1,406.3 mg/100 g dry weight) which was 3-fold higher than ‘Darrow’ (465.7). Especially, D3Ga was presented the 32% of total anthocyanins followed by Pn3G + M3Ga (20%) in ‘Elizabeth’.

    CONCLUSION:

    This result was showed as valuable information regarding nutritional properties of the different varieties of the highbush blueberry.

  • Download27

    Comparison of Flavonoid Characteristics between Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Cultivated in Korea using UPLC-DAD-QTOF/MS

    Young Jin Kim, Heon-Woong Kim, Min-Ki Lee, Seon-Hye Lee, Hwan-Hee Jang, Yu-Jin Hwang, Jeong-Sook Choe, Sung-Hyun Lee, Youn-Soo Cha, Jung-Bong Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.2, 87-96

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.2.14
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    BACKGROUND:

    The objective of this study was to identify and compare the main phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic acids) in blueberry and black raspberry cultivated in Korea using ultra-performance liquid chromatography –diode array detection–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF/MS).

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Twenty-nine flavonoids were identified by comparison of ultraviolet and mass spectra with data in a chemical library and published data. Blueberry contained flavonols including kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, and syringetin aglycones. Isorhamnetin 3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol 3-O-(6''-Oacetyl) glucoside, quercetin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (avicularin), quercetin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl) glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-robinobiosidewere detected for the first time in blueberry. The flavonoids in raspberry consisted of quercetin aglycone and its glycosides. The mean total flavonoid content in blueberry [143.0mg/100 g dryweight (DW)]was 1.5-times that in raspberry (95.4mg/100 gDW). The most abundant flavonoid in blueberry was quercetin 3-O-galactoside (hyperoside, up to 76.1 mg/100 g DW) and that in raspberry was quercetin 3-O-glucuronide (miquelianin, up to 55.5 mg/100 g DW). Miquelianin was not detected in blueberry.

    CONCLUSION:

    Flavonol glycosides were the main flavonoids in blueberry and black raspberry cultivated in Korea. The composition and contents of flavonoids differed between blueberry and black raspberry, andmay be affected by the cultivar and cultivation conditions.

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    Banana Peel: A Green Solution for Metal Removal from Contaminated Waters

    KKIU Arunakumara, Buddhi Charana Walpola, Min-Ho Yoon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2013 / v.32, no.2, 108-116

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.108
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    BACKGROUND:

    Certain crop-based waste materials have been recognized as cost-effective and highly efficient adsorbents for removal and recovery of different kind of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The ability is strongly attributed to the carboxyl functional group of some pectin substances such as galacturonic acid often found in fruit peels. The present manuscript was aimed at assessing the potential applicability of banana peel for metal removal from contaminated waters.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    As revealed by laboratory investigations, banana peel contains pectin (10-21%), lignin (6-12%), cellulose (7.6-9.6%), and hemicelluloses (6.4-9.4%). The pectin extraction is reported to have glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, and galactouroninc acid. Several studies conducted under different conditions proved that banana peel is capable of adsorbing 5.71, 2.55, 28.00, 6.88, 7.97, and 5.80 mg/g of Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+, respectively, from aqueous solutions. Adsorption capacity is, however, dependent upon several factors including solution pH, dose of adsorbent and metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    Since the annual world production of banana exceeds 100 million tons, about 40 million tons of banana peel (40% of total weight of the fresh fruit) remains vastly unused. Exploring a sound technology with banana peel would therefore, not only address the much needed sustainable tool for cleaning contaminated waters, but of course bring an additional value to the banana industry worldwide.

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    Change in Available Phosphate by Application of Phosphate Fertilizer in Long-term Fertilization Experiment for Paddy Soil

    Sun-Gang Yun, Myung-Sook Kim, Seok-Cheol Kim, Seong-Jin Park, Chang-Hoon Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 141-146

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.27
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    BACKGROUND:

    Phosphorus(P) is a vital factor for rice but excess input of phosphorus fertilizer can cause environmental risk and waste of fertilizer resources. We studied to assess the change of available phosphate, P balance, critical concentration of available phosphate under a rice single system.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The changes of available phosphate of paddy soil were examined from long-term fertilization experiment which was started in 1954 at the National Academy ofAgricultural Science. The treatments were no phosphate fertilization(No fert., andN), phosphate fertilization(NPK, NPKC, and NPKCLS). The available phosphorus concentrations in treatmentswithout phosphate fertilizer (No fert. andN)were decreased continuously. But, after 47 years, available phosphate content in phosphate fertilizer treatment (NPK,NPKC, andNPKCLS) reached at the highest (245~331 mg kg-1), showing a tendency to decrease afterward. The mean annual P field balance in these treatments (NPK,NPKC, andNPKCLS) had positive values that varied from16.6 to 17.5 kg ha-1 year-1, and ratio of residual P were increased. These showed that phosphate fertilizer in soil were converted into the form of residual phosphorus which was not easily extracted by available phosphate extractant. Also, Itwas estimated that the critical value of available phosphate for rice cultivationwas 120mg kg-1 using Cate-Nelson equation.

    CONCLUSION:

    We concluded that no more phosphate fertilizer should be applied in rice single system if soil available phosphate is higher than the critical P value.

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    Changes in the Organic Compound Contents of the Pear Rootstocks Pyrus calleryana and Pyrus betulaefolia Affected by Excessive Soil Moisture

    KyungHo Won, Yoon-Kyeong Kim, Kyeong-Bok Ma, Il-Sheob Shin, Ug-Yong Lee, Byul-Ha-Na Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, In-Bok Lee, Myung-Su Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.3, 175-183

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.3.22
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    BACKGROUND:

    There’s a long rainy season during the Summer in Northeast Asia, including Korea. Heavy rainfall during this season causes harm to tree’s root, and damped injury in the pear has been continuously reported. Pear Research Institute is breeding damp resistant rootstocks and investigating their mechanisms to relieve damped damages in the pear.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Seedlings of Pyrus betulaefolia and P. calleryana were divided into two groups: control and damped, respectively. Damped group was treated by constant irrigation for 77 days and control group was maintained to keep the soil moisture pressure between 0 and –10 kPa. After the treatment, we analysed trees’ growth rate, chlorophyll content, amino acids and total phenolic compounds. As a result, P. betulaefolia was sensitive to damped treatment while P. calleryana did not have significant differences between the control and damped treatment. It was observed that total contents for phenolic compounds were dramatically increased in P. betulaefolia while trees’ growth rate, chlorophyll b and general amino acid contents were lowered by damping treatment.

    CONCLUSION:

    In some pear cultivars, growth habit is suppressed by damped damage. Pyrus calleryana displayed tolerances to damped damage in growth rate and some organic compound contents compared to P. betulaefolia. So we recommend to exploit P. calleryana as a pear rootstock rather than using P. betulaefolia.