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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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  • Download212

    Adsorption Characteristics of Aqueous Ammonium Using Rice hull-Derived Biochar

    Yong-Su Choi, Joung-Du Shin, Sun-Il Lee, Sung-Chul Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.3, 155-160

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.3.25
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    BACKGROUND

    Objective of this study was to investigate adsorption characteristics of NH4-N to biochar produced from rice hull in respective to mitigation of greenhouse gases.

    METHODS AND RESULTS

    NH4-N concentration was analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. For adsorption experiment of NH4-N to biochar, input amount of biochar was varied from 0.4 to 10 g/L with 30 mg/L NH4-N solution. Its adsorption characteristic was investigated with application of Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption amount and removal rates of NH4-N were decreased at 53.9% and increased at 20.2% with 10 g/L compared to 0.4 g/L, respectively. The sorption of NH4-N to biochar produced from rice hull was fitted well by a Langmuir model. The largest adsorption amount of NH4-N (qm) and binding strength constant (b) were calculated as 0.4980 mg/g, and 0.0249 L/mg, respectively. It was observed that dimensionless constant (RL) was 0.58.

    CONCLUSION

    It was indicated that biochar produced from rice hull is favorably absorbed NH4-N, because this value lie within 0<RL<1.

  • Download161

    Banana Peel: A Green Solution for Metal Removal from Contaminated Waters

    KKIU Arunakumara, Buddhi Charana Walpola, Min-Ho Yoon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2013 / v.32, no.2, 108-116

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.108
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    BACKGROUND:

    Certain crop-based waste materials have been recognized as cost-effective and highly efficient adsorbents for removal and recovery of different kind of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The ability is strongly attributed to the carboxyl functional group of some pectin substances such as galacturonic acid often found in fruit peels. The present manuscript was aimed at assessing the potential applicability of banana peel for metal removal from contaminated waters.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    As revealed by laboratory investigations, banana peel contains pectin (10-21%), lignin (6-12%), cellulose (7.6-9.6%), and hemicelluloses (6.4-9.4%). The pectin extraction is reported to have glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, and galactouroninc acid. Several studies conducted under different conditions proved that banana peel is capable of adsorbing 5.71, 2.55, 28.00, 6.88, 7.97, and 5.80 mg/g of Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+, respectively, from aqueous solutions. Adsorption capacity is, however, dependent upon several factors including solution pH, dose of adsorbent and metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    Since the annual world production of banana exceeds 100 million tons, about 40 million tons of banana peel (40% of total weight of the fresh fruit) remains vastly unused. Exploring a sound technology with banana peel would therefore, not only address the much needed sustainable tool for cleaning contaminated waters, but of course bring an additional value to the banana industry worldwide.

  • Download147

    The applicability of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) as a substitute for nitrogen fertilizer

    Min-Suk Kim, Hyungi Min, Sun-Hee Hong, Jeong-Gyu Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.1, 1-5

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.1.06
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    BACKGROUND:

    Burcucumber(Sicyos angulatus L.) is an invasive plant species and disturbs ecosystems in Korea. The main method for prevention of burcucumber is cutting or pulling out. However, the studies accounting for the use of the by-product of burcucumber after cutting remain incomplete. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of burcucumber as a substitute for nitrogen fertilizer.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Burcucmber plants only including stem, leaves, and petiole were collected from the Sky Park in Seoul and divided in to three categories based on the length of stem of burcucumber; 10-30 cm, 30-100 cm, and 100-200 cm. And they were input into soil with 20 kg-N/10 a. After 4 weeks aging, chemical properties of treated soils and the productivity of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) were examined. Both the inorganic nitrogen contents in soils and the growth of lettuce were increased with the decreases in length of burcucumber standing for young plant. And the inorganic nitrogen content and the productivity of lettuce were positively correlated(r= 0.9409).

    CONCLUSION:

    The C/N ratio of burcucumber was low, indicating fast decomposition and nitrogen supplying rate, resulting in the increase in lettuce growth. Burcucumber could be a good substitute for nitrogen organic fertilizer.

  • Download131

    Method Development and Analysis of Carotenoid Compositions in Various Tomatoes

    Han-Kyul Kim, Jin-Hyuk Chun, Sun-Ju Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.3, 196-203

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.3.23
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    BACKGROUND:

    Purpose of this research is HPLC analysis method development of lycopene in tomato. And then, three components of carotenoid in four kinds of tomatoes (general tomato, cherry tomato, red and orange date tomato) were compared with each other.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Lycopene in tomato was extracted with hexane likes other carotenoid components using 500 mg of dried powder sample. HPLC analysis conditions were column temperature (40℃), detection wavelength (454 nm), flow rate (1.0 mL/min) and injection volume (20.0 μL). Lycopene was analyzed by the gradient elution (60 → 100%) of the mobile phase solvents A[water: methanol=25: 75 (v/v)] and B[ethyl acetate].

    CONCLUSION:

    Three components of carotenoids (lutein, β-carotene, lycopene) were observed in tomatoes. The total carotenoid contents was the highest in red date tomato (662.0 mg/kg dry wt.) and the lowest in orange date tomato (111.3 mg/kg dry wt.). Lycopene contents in tomatoes was the highest percentage (93%) among all the carotenoids.

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    Study for Residue Analysis of Fluxametamid in Agricultural Commodities

    Ji Young Kim, Yoon Ju Choi, Jong Soo Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Jung Ah Do, Yong Hyun Jung, Kang Bong Lee, Hyochin Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.1, 1-9

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.1.5
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    BACKGROUND:

    Accurate and simple analytical method determining Fluxametamid residue was necessary in various food matrices. Additionally, fulfilment of the international guideline of Codex (Codex Alimentarius Commission CAC/GL 40) was required for the analytical method. In this study, we developed Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to determine the Fluxametamid residue in foods.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Fluxametamid was extracted with acetonitrile, partitioned and concentrated with dichloromethane. To remove the interferences, silica SPE cartridge was used before LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry) analysis with C18 column. Five agricultural commodities (mandarin, potato, soybean, hulled rice, and red pepper) were used as a group representative to verify the method. The liner matrix-matched calibration curves were confirmed with coefficient of determination (r2) greater than 0.99 at calibration range of 0.001-0.25 mg/kg. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.001 and 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. Mean average accuracies were shown to be 82.24-115.27%. The precision was also shown to be less than 10% for all five samples.

    CONCLUSION:

    The method investigated in this study was suitable to the Codex guideline for the residue analysis. Thus, this method can be useful for determining the residue in various food matrices as routine analysis.

  • Download119

    Soil carbon storage in upland soils by biochar application in East Asia

    Sun-Il Lee, Seong-Soo Kang, Eun-Jung Choi, Hyo-Suk Gwon, Hyoung-Seok Lee, Jong-Mun Lee, Sang-Sun Lim, Woo-Jung Choi / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2021 / v.40, no.3, 219-230

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2021.40.3.26
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    BACKGROUND:

    Biochar is a solid material converted from agricultural biomass such as crop residues and pruning branch through pyrolysis under limited oxygen supply. Biochar consists of non-degradable carbon (C) double bonds and aromatic ring that are not readily broken down by microbial degradation in the soils. Due to the recalcitrancy of C in biochar, biochar application to the soils is of help in enhancing soil carbon sequestration in arable lands that might be a strategy of agricultural sector to mitigate climate change.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Data were collected from studies on the effect of biochar application on soil C content conducted in East Asian countries including China, Japan and Korea under different experimental conditions (incubation, column, pot, and field). The magnitude of soil C storage was positively correlated (p < 0.001) with biochar application rate under field conditions, reflecting accumulation of recalcitrant black C in the biochar. However, The changes in soil C contents per C input from biochar (% per t/ha) were 6.80 in field condition, and 12.58 in laboratory condition. The magnitude of increment of soil C was lower in field than in laboratory conditions due to potential loss of C through weathering of biochar under field conditions. Biochar production condition also affected soil C increment; more C increment was found with biochar produced at a high temperature (over 450℃).

    CONCLUSION:

    This review suggests that biochar application is a potential measures of C sequestration in agricultural soils. However, as the increment of soil C biochar was affected by biochar types, further studies are necessary to find better biochar types for enhanced soil C storage.

  • Download118

    A Research of Soil Environmental Health in Urban Garden, Gwangju

    Gil-Sik Jang, Yun-Hee Kim, Young-Seop Choi, Seung-Ho Kim, Jong-Min Kim, Seok-Jin Bae, Young-Gwan Cho, Tae-Hyoung Koo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 87-96

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.14
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    BACKGROUND:

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the soil quality to cultivate crops in urban garden.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    During the period of six month from March to August 2015, measured eight heavy metals, seven Organic items and Fluorine on seventeen urban sites and thirty-one suburban sites in Gwangju city.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The average concentration and range of heavy metal in soil are 0.15 mg/kg(ND-0.6) for Cd, 14.9 mg/kg(1.5-33.3) for Cu, 4.4 mg/kg(0.4-71.8) for As, 0.05 mg/kg(ND-1.366) for Hg, 24.7 mg/kg(13.1-62.7) for Pb, 102.5 mg/kg(49.1-276.4) for Zn and 9.2 mg/kg(ND-90.1) for Ni but Cr6+ is not detected. The average value and range of soil fertility items are 253.5mg/kg(76.6-1766.0) for fluorine, 6.4(4.8-7.7) for pH, 20.3 g/kg(5.0-44.0) for orangic matters, 562.7 mg/kg (28.0-1672.0) for available phosphate, 0.6 cmol+/kg (0.1-2.3) for K, 9.7 cmol+/kg (2.7-22.0) for Ca, 3.0 cmol+/kg (0.9-7.4) for Mg, 1.0 ds/m(0.2-2.9) for conductivity. The concentration of Hg in Suburban area is 0.005 mg/kg lower than 0.134 mg/kg in urban area. Also, the concentration of As, Cd, Ni and Zn is lower than urban area as 32%, 37%, 51%, 71% respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    According to SPI index of soil contamination, 39 sites are first degree and 8 sites are second degree and 1 site(41th) is fourth degree. Pb and Cd are not detected and As is detected tiny amounts in plants grown polluted soil, so heavy metals have not moved to plants.

  • Download101

    The Study of Soil Chemical Properties and Soil Bacterial Communities on the Cultivation Systems of Cnidium officinale Makino

    Chung Woo Kim, Chung Ryul Jung, Kiyoon Kim, Kyeung Min Han, Hyun-Jun Kim, Kwon Seok Jeon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.1, 1-9

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.1.1
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    BACKGROUND:

    The aim of this study was to investigate the soil chemical properties and soil bacterial community of the cropping system for Cnidium officinale Makino.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The bacterial community was analyzed for the relative abundance and principal coordinated analysis (PCoA analysis) by using by Illumina Miseq sequencing. The correlation analysis between soil chemical properties and soil bacterial community were analyzed by Spearman’s rank correlation and DISTLM analysis. Soil bacterial community (phylum and class) showed two distinct clusters consisting of cluster 1 (first cropping) and cluster 2 (continuous cropping) from 2 different cultivation methods of Cnidium officinale Makino. PCoA and DISTLM analyses showed that soil pH and Ca significantly affected soil bacterial community in cultivation area of Cnidium officinale Makino. In addition, Spearman’s rank correlation showed significant correlation between relative abundance (Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria) and soil factors (soil pH and Ca).

    CONCLUSION:

    The results of this study were considered to be important for determining the correlation between soil properties and soil bacterial community of the cropping method for Cnidium officinale Makino. Furthermore, the results will be helpful to investigate the cause of continuous cropping injury of the Cnidium officinale Makino by examining the changes of soil properties and soil bacterial communities.

  • Download92

    Phytoremediation Potential of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), Mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) in Arsenic-contaminated Soil

    M. Uddin Nizam, M. Wahid-U-Zzaman, M. Mokhlesur Rahman, Jang-Eok Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.2, 111-120

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.2.15
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    BACKGROUND:

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater used for long-term irrigation has emerged as a serious problem by adding As to soils. Phytoremediation potential of fiber crops viz., kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) was studied to clean up As-contaminated soil.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Varieties of three fiber crops were selected in this study. Seeds of kenaf, mesta, and jute varieties were germinated in As-contaminated soil. Uptake of As by shoot was significantly higher than that by root in the contaminated soil. In As-contaminated soil, kenaf and mesta varieties accumulated more As, than did jute varieties. In the plant parts above ground, mainly the shoots, the highest As absorption was recorded in kenaf cv. HC-3, followed by kenaf cv. HC-95. Kenaf varieties produced more biomass. In terms of higher plant biomass production, and As absorption, kenaf varieties showed considerable potential to remediate As-contaminated soil.

    CONCLUSION:

    The overall As absorption and phytoremediation potentiality of plant varieties were in the order of kenaf cv. HC-3 > kenaf cv. HC-95 > mesta cv. Samu-93 > jute cv. CVE-3 > jute cv. BJC-7370. All varieties of kenaf, mesta, and jute could be considered for an appropriate green plant-based remediation technology in As-contaminated soil.

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    Identification of Pitfalls Related to the Analysis of Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Jin-Wook Kwon, Yoon-Jae Cho, Gyu-Seek Rhee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.3, 230-237

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.3.33
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    BACKGROUND

    To identify the sources of inaccuracy in LC/MS/MS methods used in the routine quantitation of small molecules are described and discussed.

    METHODS AND RESULTS

    Various UPLC coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and time of flight (TOF) were used to identify the potential sources of inaccuracy and inducing the pitfalls of qualification and quntitation during the veterinary drug residue analysis. Some of stable isotope labelled veterinary drugs, which were used as internal standards, presented “cross-talk”, regardless of manufactures of mass spectrometer and types of spectrometer. Group of sulfonamides also presented inaccuracy qualification and quantitation due to the multi-residue analytical method with the same fragment ions at the close retention times.

    CONCLUSION

    The phenomena of “cross-talk” occurring between subsequently monitored transition from stable isotope labelled and isotope non-labelled authentic chemical were identified. To prevent errors and achieve more accurate data during the analysis of small molecules by LC/MS/MS SRM method, Followings should be taken care of and kept checking; purity and concentration of stable isotope as an internal standard, prevention of carry-over during the separation in column, minimizing the ion suppression by matrix effect, identification of retention time, precursor ion and product ion, and full knowledge of data processing including smoothing and peak integration.

  • Download87

    Desalinization Effect of Off-season Crop Cultivation in Long-term Oriental Melon Cultivated Plastic Film House Soils

    Il-Su Byeon, Jong-Bae Chung / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.4, 253-259

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.4.39
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    BACKGROUND:

    During the off-season, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage and water dropwort is often used to desalinize plastic film house soils. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of double-cropping systems on the salt removal in oriental melon cultivated plastic film house soils.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Electrical conductivity (EC) and soluble salt contents were measured in soils collected from plastic film houses of oriental melon cultivation before and after the off-season crop cultivation. Also the same measurements were performed in the next oriental melon season to estimate the desalinization effect of double-cropping systems. During the cultivation of Chinese cabbage under open-field condition, ECe of surface soil was reduced from 6.0 to 0.8 dS/m. Double-cropping of water dropwort in flooded soil was also efficient in removing the salts accumulated during oriental melon cultivation. In the house soils where salts were removed during the off-season crop cultivation, soil ECe was maintained below 3 dS/m during the next oriental melon cultivation season.

    CONCLUSION:

    The off-season cropping under open-field or flooded condition was effective in desalinization of plastic film house soils. Since the salt removal effect is not expected to last for several years, the double-cropping system should be introduced every season to maintain soil EC below the critical level.

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    A Study on the Mitigation of Nitrous Oxide emission with the Horticultural Fertilizer of Containing Urease Inhibitor in Hot Pepper and Chinese Cabbage Field

    Ok Jung Ju, Gap June Lim, Sang Duk Lee, Tae Jin Won, Jung Soo Park, Chang Sung Kang, Soon Sung Hong, Nam Goo Kang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 235-242

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.36
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    BACKGROUND:

    About 81% of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural land to the atmosphere is due to nitrogen (N) fertilizer application. Mitigation of N2O emissions can be more effective in controlling biochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification in the soil rather than decreasing fertilizer application. The use of urease inhibitors is an effective way to improve N fertilizer efficiency and reduce N2O emissions. Several compounds act as urease inhibitors, but N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) has been used worldwide.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Hot pepper and chinese cabbage were cultivated in five treatments: standard fertilizer of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium(N-P-K, N-P2O5-K2O: 22.5-11.2-14.9 kg/ha for hot pepper and N-P2O5-K2O: 32.0-7.8-19.8 kg/ha for chinese cabbage), no fertilizer, and NBPT-treated fertilizer of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times of nitrogen basal application rate of the standard fertilizer, respectively in Gyeonggi-do Hwaseong-si for 2 years(2015-2016). According to application of NBPT-treated fertilizer in hot pepper and chinese cabbage, N2O emission decreased by 19-20% compared to that of the standard fertilizer plot.

    CONCLUSION:

    NBPT-treated fertilizer proved that N2O emissions decreased statistically significant in the same growth conditions as the standard fertilization in the hot pepper and chinese cabbage cultivated fields. It means that NBPT-treated fertilizer can be applied for N fertilizer efficiency and N2O emissions reduction.

  • Download83

    Estimation of Ammonia Emission with Compost Application in Plastic House for Leafy Perilla Cultivation

    Sung-Chang Hong, Jin-Ho Kim, Min-Wook Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2021 / v.40, no.3, 149-160

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2021.40.3.18
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    BACKGROUND:

    Concerns have been raised about the impact of recent high concentrations of fine dust on human health. Ammonia(NH3) reacts with sulfur oxides and nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere to form ultrafine ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate (PM2.5). There is a growing need for accurate estimates of the amount of ammonia emitted during agricultural production. Therefore, in this study, ammonia emissions generated from the cultivation of leafy perilla in plastic houses were determined.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Cow manure compost, swine manure compost, and poultry manure compost each at 34.6 ton ha-1, the amount commonly used by farmers in the field, was sprayed on the soil surface. Just after spraying cow manure compost, swine manure compost, and poultry manure compost, the ammonia was periodically measured and analyzed to be 22.5 kg ha-1, 22.8 kg ha-1, and 85.2 kg ha-1, respectively. The emission factors were estimated at 70.0 kg-NH3 ton-N, 62.8 kg-NH3 ton-N, and 234.1 kg-NH3 ton-N, respectively. Most ammonia was released in the two weeks after application of the compost and then the amount released gradually decreased.

    CONCLUSION:

    Therefore, it is necessary to improve the emission factor through a study on the estimation of ammonia emission by type of livestock manure and major farming types such as rice fields and uplands, and to update data on the production, distribution, and sales of livestock manure.

  • Download83

    Residues and Exposure Assessment of Carbendazim in Chamnamul on Field Trials for Revising Maximum Residue Limit in Korea

    Hee-Ra Chang, Hye-Min Gwak / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.3, 153-157

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.3.18
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    BACKGROUND:

    The residue dissipation pattern of pesticides for agricultural products during the pre-harvest period after the final application is important to prevent the maximum residue limit (MRL) violations in domestic and export markets. The MRL violations of carbendazim are observed more often in chamnamul by pesticide residue management surveys by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The residue level at the pre-harvest interval (PHI) and the residue dissipation constant from the critical good agricultural practice (cGAP) trials could be estimated to meet the MRL and pose a health risk to consumers.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Chamnamuls were harvested at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days after application of carbendazim in accordance with critical GAP. The residue analysis in chamnanul was performed by HPLC-DAD with the C18 column. The limit of quantitation of carbendazim was 0.04 mg/kg , and the recoveries were 74.4 - 95.8% at the two spiked levels (LOQ and 10LOQ) of carbendazim. The dissipation rates in chamnamul were calculated from the residues at the sampling days by statistical method at a 95% confidence level. The biological half-lives of residual carbendazim in the field trials 1 and 2 were 4.9 and 4.4 days, respectively.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    In this dissipation study, the residue concentrations at the recommended PHI were higher than the established MRL in Korea. Therefore, the MRL is proposed based on the residue data sets from the trials conducted at the same cGAP and the dietary exposure assessment.

  • Download77

    Heavy Metal Accumulation in Edible Part of Eleven Crops Cultivated in Metal Contaminated Soils and Their Bio-concentration Factor

    Ga-Hee Lim, Kye-Hoon Kim, Byoung-Hwan Seo, Kwon-Rae Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2015 / v.34, no.4, 260-267

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2015.34.4.46
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    BACKGROUND:

    The current study was conducted to examine the species specific accumulation of Cd and Pb in 11 crop species (Soybean, Sesame, Corn, Polished rice, Carrot, Potato, Garlic, Spring onion, Chinese leek, Red pepper, Eggplant), through cultivating them under the same condition with metal contaminated soils.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Eleven crop species were cultivated in three different soils contaminated with Cd and Pb and harvested. Edible parts of each crop was pretreated and analyzed to determine Cd and Pb concentrations, and subsequently bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In general, the crops of which seeds are used as food showed high concentrations of both Cd and Pb. For instance, Cd concentrations in crops cultivated in Soil A was in the order of soybean (0.432 mg kg-1) > sesame (0.385) > polished rice (0.176) > carrot (0.116) > corn (0.060) > red pepper > (0.047) > potato (0.044) > egg plant (0.025) > garlic (0.023) > spring onion (0.016) > Chinese leek (0.011). BCFs showed the same order.

    CONCLUSION:

    From this study, it can be conclude that seeds plants should not be cultivated in Cd and Pb contaminated soils to secure food safety from metal contaminated soils.

  • Download76

    Effect of Carbonized Biomass Derived from Pruning on Soil Carbon Pools in Pear Orchard

    Sun-il Lee, Jong-sik Lee, Gun-yeob Kim, Eun-jung Choi, Sang-uk Suh, Un-Sung Na / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2016 / v.35, no.3, 159-165

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2016.35.3.26
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    BACKGROUND:

    Carbonized biomass is increasingly used as a tool of soil carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil carbon storage to application of carbonized biomass derived from pear tree pruning.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The carbonized biomass was a mobile pyrolyzer with field scale, which a reactor was operated about 400~500℃ for 5 hours. The treatments were consisted of a control without input of carbonized biomass and two levels of carbonized biomass inputs as 6.06 Mg/ha, C-1 and 12.12 Mg/ha, C-2. It was shown that the soil carbon pools were 49.3 Mg/ha for C-1, 57.8 Mg/ha for C-2 and 40.1 Mg/ha for the control after experimental periods. The contents of accumulated soil carbon pool were significantly (P < 0.001) increased with enhancing the carbonized biomass input amount. The slopes (1.496) of the regression equations are suggested that carbon storage from the soil was increased about 0.1496 Mg/ha with every 100 kg/ha of carbonized biomass input amount.

    CONCLUSION:

    Our results suggest that application of carbonized biomass would be increased the soil carbon contents due to a highly stable C-matrix of carbonized biomass. More long-term studies are needed to be proved how long does carbon stay in orchard soils.

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    Effects of Biochar on Early Growth and Nutrient Content of Vegetable Seedlings

    Sung-Chang Hong, Seon-Young Yu, Kyeong-Sik Kim, Gyu-Hyun Lee, Sae-Nun Song / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.1, 50-57

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.1.7
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    BACKGROUND:

    Biochar is used in various environmental fields, such as water quality and soil restoration, and affects soil fertility and nutrient cycling. Also, when crops are grown on biochar-applied soil, their characteristics may be affected. Biochar is used especially with commercial vegetable seedlings.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of biochar content in seeding mixes on early growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Treatments consisted of a control (0: 10, ratio of biochar to seeding mixes (w/w)), 1: 9 (biochar 10%), 3: 7 (biochar 30%), 5: 5 (biochar 50%), and 7: 3 (biochar 70%). The biochar was made from risk husk and had a C/N ratio of 104. As the mixing ratio of biochar increased, pH increased whereas EC and nitrogen content decreased. The highest phosphorus content was with the treatment of 30% biochar, while there were significant increases in the weight of lettuce seedlings and concentrations of T-N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, and Na with the treatments of 30% and 50% biochar. Although the weight of Chinese cabbage seedlings increased with the treatment of 10% biochar, the increase was not statistically significant. Also, there was an increase in the weight of red pepper seedlings with the treatment of 30% biochar, but the increase was not statistically significant. With increases in the biochar mixing ratio, the K2O concentration of red pepper seedlings increased, but the concentrations of P2O5, CaO, MgO, and Na decreased. It was believed that this was because of absorption inhibition by calcium-phosphate formation in the seeding mixes owing to increased pH.

    CONCLUSION:

    In conclusion, adding biochar to seeding mixes is considered to be an important mean for growing healthy vegetable seedlings. More field experiments are needed to verify the effect of biochar on vegetable crop growth over the entire growing season.

  • Download69

    Status and Changes in Chemical Properties of Upland Soil from 2001 to 2017 in Korea

    Yi-Hyun Kim, Myung-suk Kong, Eun-Jin Lee, Tae-Goo Lee, Goo-Bok Jung / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2019 / v.38, no.3, 213-218

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2019.38.3.28
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    BACKGROUND:

    Monitoring of the dynamic changes of chemical properties in agricultural land is very important for agricultural sustainability. Chemical properties of agricultural soils in Korea have been investigated at four-year interval in the order of paddy, plastic film house, upland, and orchard soils since 1999.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Total 8,160 topsoil samples were taken from the upland in 2001, 2005, 2009, 2013, and 2017, respectively. Soil chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), available phosphate (Avail. P2O5), and exchangeable (Exch.) cations (K, Ca, and Mg) were analyzed. Soil pH and Exch. Ca contents have increased since 2001. Average concentration of Avail. P2O5 increased from 547 mg kg-1 in 2001 to 657 mg kg-1 in 2017. Average concentration of Exch. Ca in 2017 was higher than the upper limit of its optimal range for upland cultivation. Excess and deficiency of chemical properties of upland soils comply with soil analysis and fertilizer prescription.

    CONCLUSION:

    We concluded that excessive nutrient in upland needed to be properly managed with soil test.

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    Relative Effectiveness of Bone Meal as a Phosphorus Fertilizer Compared with Fused Phosphate

    Jong-Bae Chung, Byeong-Ryong Jeong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.1, 1-6

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.1.01
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    Abstract

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    BACKGROUND:

    Bone meal is commonly used as a phosphorus (P) fertilizer in organic farming. Effectiveness of bone meal was compared with mineral P fertilizer to elucidate the optimum application rates of bone meal in crop production.

    METHODSANDRESULTS:

    The effects of bonemeal and fused phosphate on plant growth and P uptake were determined in a pot experimentwithmaize (Zeamays L.) in a clay loam soil. Bone meal and fused phosphate were applied at 150 and 300 mg P2O5/kg soil, and maize was grown for 3 consecutive growth periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. As compared with fused phosphate, total shoot growth of maize per pot was 3-6% lower in bone meal fertilization, and the difference was not significant in the application of 300 mg P2O5/kg. At the same P application rate, uptake of P by maize plants was 7-9% lower in bone meal treatment. The P use efficiency in bone meal treatments ranged from11.9-13.6%, equivalent to 73-84% of the efficiency for fused phosphate treatments.

    CONCLUSION:

    The equivalence of immediate effectiveness of bone meal as a P fertilizer was at least 90% compared with fused phosphate in the pot experimentwithmaize. The results indicate that bone meal could be a reasonable alternative to chemical P fertilizers.