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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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Current Issue 2018. Vol.37, Iss.4 Cover image Contents list Print articles

Orginal Articles

  • A Study on the Mitigation of Nitrous Oxide emission with the Horticultural Fertilizer of Containing Urease Inhibitor in Hot Pepper and Chinese Cabbage Field

    Ok Jung Ju, Gap June Lim, Sang Duk Lee, Tae Jin Won, Jung Soo Park, Chang Sung Kang, Soon Sung Hong, Nam Goo Kang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 235-242

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.36
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    BACKGROUND:

    About 81% of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural land to the atmosphere is due to nitrogen (N) fertilizer application. Mitigation of N2O emissions can be more effective in controlling biochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification in the soil rather than decreasing fertilizer application. The use of urease inhibitors is an effective way to improve N fertilizer efficiency and reduce N2O emissions. Several compounds act as urease inhibitors, but N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) has been used worldwide.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Hot pepper and chinese cabbage were cultivated in five treatments: standard fertilizer of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium(N-P-K, N-P2O5-K2O: 22.5-11.2-14.9 kg/ha for hot pepper and N-P2O5-K2O: 32.0-7.8-19.8 kg/ha for chinese cabbage), no fertilizer, and NBPT-treated fertilizer of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times of nitrogen basal application rate of the standard fertilizer, respectively in Gyeonggi-do Hwaseong-si for 2 years(2015-2016). According to application of NBPT-treated fertilizer in hot pepper and chinese cabbage, N2O emission decreased by 19-20% compared to that of the standard fertilizer plot.

    CONCLUSION:

    NBPT-treated fertilizer proved that N2O emissions decreased statistically significant in the same growth conditions as the standard fertilization in the hot pepper and chinese cabbage cultivated fields. It means that NBPT-treated fertilizer can be applied for N fertilizer efficiency and N2O emissions reduction.

  • The Distribution and Behavior of Medically-derived 131I in the Yeongsan River Basin

    Tae-Woo Kang, Young-Un Han, Won-Pyo Park, Kwang-Duck Song, Soon-Hong Hwang, Tae Gu Kang, Kyung Hyun Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 243-250

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.33
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    BACKGROUND:

    Recently, the use of 131I for diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer has been increasing, and the radionuclide is continuously released into aquatic ecosystem. This study was carried out to investigate the 131I concentrations in mainstreams, tributaries, and sewage wastewater treatment plants (SWTPs) of the Yeongsan River Basin and to identify their origins from the assessment of behaviors in the rivers.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The water samples were collected from 19 sites including mainstreams (13), tributaries (4) and SWTPs (2). The 131I concentration was measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector. The 131I in SWTPs was detected mostly in the discharged effluent at the sampling sites. However, from the surface water of the rivers, 131I was found only at two sites from each sampling period of the first (MS4 and MS10) and the second half (MS4 and MS7) of the year 2017. The concentrations of 131I in the effluent discharged from SWTPs were in the range of 0.0870 to 3.87 Bq/L for SWTP1, and <MDC to 0.534 Bq/L for SWTP2. The concentrations of the isotope detected in surface water of the rivers were between 0.0908 to 0.174 Bq/L. The behavior assessment of 131I in the river revealed that it was not detected in the upper streams of the mainstreams and tributaries, while continuous detection was found in the SWTPs and downstream sites affected by the effluent. However, the concentration of 131I decreased downstream, eventually becoming undetectable. Such behavior was closely related to the behavior found in the SWTPs.

    CONCLUSION:

    These results indicated that medically-derived 131I was discharged to the river via sewage effluent at the SWTPs. It is necessary to evaluate the influence of aquatic ecosystems through continuous monitoring in the future.

  • Design of Cloud-Based Data Analysis System for Culture Medium Management in Smart Greenhouses

    Jeong-Wook Heo, Kyeong-Hun Park, Jae-Su Lee, Seung-Gil Hong, Gong-In Lee, Jeong-Hyun Baek / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 251-259

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.38
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    BACKGROUND:

    Various culture media have been used for hydroponic cultures of horticultural plants under the smart greenhouses with natural and artificial light types. Management of the culture medium for the control of medium amounts and/or necessary components absorbed by plants during the cultivation period is performed with ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and/or IoT (Internet of Things) in a smart farm system. This study was conducted to develop the cloud-based data analysis system for effective management of culture medium applying to hydroponic culture and plant growth in smart greenhouses.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Conventional inorganic Yamazaki and organic media derived from agricultural byproducts such as a immature fruit, leaf, or stem were used for hydroponic culture media. Component changes of the solutions according to the growth stage were monitored and plant growth was observed. Red and green lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.) which developed 2~3 true leaves were considered as plant materials. The seedlings were hydroponically grown in the smart greenhouse with fluorescent and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) lights of 150 μmol/m2/s light intensity for 35 days. Growth data of the seedlings were classified and stored to develop the relational database in the virtual machine which was generated from an open stack cloud system on the base of growth parameter. Relation of the plant growth and nutrient absorption pattern of 9 inorganic components inside the media during the cultivation period was investigated. The stored data associated with component changes and growth parameters were visualized on the web through the web framework and Node JS.

    CONCLUSION:

    Time-series changes of inorganic components in the culture media were observed. The increases of the unfolded leaves or fresh weight of the seedlings were mainly dependent on the macroelements such as a NO3-N, and affected by the different inorganic and organic media. Though the data analysis system was developed, actual measurement data were offered by using the user smart device, and analysis and comparison of the data were visualized graphically in time series based on the cloud database. Agricultural management in data visualization and/or plant growth can be implemented by the data analysis system under whole agricultural sites regardless of various culture environmental changes.

  • Comparison of Phenolic Acid from Shoots of Aralia elata and Kalopanax pictus Cultivated in Korea Using UPLC-DAD-ESI(+)-QToF/MS

    Young Jin Kim, Heon-Woong Kim, Min-Ki Lee, Seon-Hye Lee, Gelila Asamenew, Suji Lee, Sang Hoon Lee, Youn-Soo Cha, Jung Bong Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 260-267

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.37
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    BACKGROUND:

    In this study, shoots of Aralia elata and Kalopanax pictus which belong to the Araliaceae family were analyzed using UPLC-DAD-ESI(+)-QToF/MS to characterize of individual phenolic acids.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Total thirteen phenolic acids were identified, and nine hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives have been identified for the first time in shoots of Aralia elata and Kalopanax pictus. For total phenolic acid content (mg/100g dry weight), shoots of Aralia elata and Kalopanax pictus showed 754.8 and 845.3 mg/100g, respectively. 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (49%) and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (44%) were found as major phenolic acids in Aralia elata, while 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (91%) was a major component in Kalopanax pictus.

    CONCLUSION:

    On comparing the two plants, it was considered that the biosynthesis of 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid can be affected by 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in Aralia elata.

  • Particulate Matter and CO2 Improvement Effects by Vegetation-based Bio-filters and the Indoor Comfort Index Analysis

    Tae-Han Kim, Boo-Hun Choi, Na-Hyun Choi, Eun-Suk Jang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 268-276

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.41
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    BACKGROUND:

    In the month of January 2018, fine dust alerts and warnings were issued 36 times for PM10 and 81 times for PM2.5. Air quality is becoming a serious issue nation-wide. Although interest in air-purifying plants is growing due to the controversy over the risk of chemical substances of regular air-purifying solutions, industrial spread of the plants has been limited due to their efficiency in air-conditioning perspective.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    This study aims to propose a vegetation-based bio-filter system that can assure total indoor air volume for the efficient application of air-purifying plants. In order to evaluate the quantitative performance of the system, time-series analysis was conducted on air-conditioning performance, indoor air quality, and comfort index improvement effects in a lecture room-style laboratory with 16 persons present in the room. The system provided 4.24 ACH ventilation rate and reduced indoor temperature by 1.6℃ and black bulb temperature by 1.0℃. Relative humidity increased by 24.4% and deteriorated comfort index. However, this seemed to be offset by turbulent flow created from the operation of air blowers. While PM10 was reduced by 39.5% to 22.11㎍/m3, CO2 increased up to 1,329ppm. It is interpreted that released CO2 could not be processed because light compensation point was not reached. As for the indoor comfort index, PMV was reduced by 83.6 % and PPD was reduced by 47.0% on average, indicating that indoor space in a comfort range could be created by operating vegetation-based bio-filters.

    CONCLUSION:

    The study confirmed that the vegetationbased bio-filter system is effective in lowering indoor temperature and PM10 and has positive effects on creating comfortable indoor space in terms of PMV and PPD.

  • Pesticides Residue Monitoring and Impact Evaluation of Golf Course and Neighbouring Area in Korea

    Jun-Bae Lee, Hoon-Je Cho, Eun-Jie Kwak, Kyoung-Hoon Park, Min-Keong Lee, Hyun-Koo Kim, Hyeon-Mi Jeoung, Hee-Ra Chang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 277-282

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.39
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    BACKGROUND:

    At these days, the human health and environmental concerns of pesticide used for turf grass management at golf courses in Korea have increased. The objectives of the study were to determine the pesticide residues for golf course and neighboring area and evaluate the impact moved into neighboring area of pesticides treated at golf courses.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Three golf courses and neighboring areas in Korea were monitored from July to October, 2017. The soil sample collection was divided the golf course into its logical parts (such as a greens, fairways, and rough) and neighboring area soil samples were collected at three different points. The water samples of the golf course and neighboring area were collected at three different points, respectively. The pesticide residues for soil and water sample were monitored by the multi-residue screening method of 98 pesticide with HPLC-MS-MS. The concentrations of detected pesticide in soil and water samples of the golf course were in the range of 0.01∼1.26 mg/kg and 0.0001∼0.0089 mg/kg, respectively. The residue levels for detected pesticides in neighboring area were at 0.01∼0.04 mg/kg and 0.0001∼0.0029 mg/kg, respectively, well below those level in golf course.

    CONCLUSION:

    This study indicate that the pesticide residue levels of golf course and neighboring area in Korea may not a possible risk of exposure on soil and aquatic environment. For future work, more monitoring should be performed so that the evaluation data becomes more valid.

  • Study for Residue Analysis of Herbicide, Clopyralid in Foods

    Ji-young Kim, Yoon Ju Choi, Jong Su Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Jung Ah Do, Yong Hyun Jung, Kang Bong Lee, Hyo Chin Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 283-290

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.42
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    BACKGROUND:

    Pesticide residue analysis is an essential activity in order to establish the food safety of agricultural products. Analytical approaches to the food safety are required to meet internationally the guideline of Codex (Codex Alimentarius Commission, CAC/GL 40). In this study, we developed a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method to determine the herbicide clopyralid in food matrixes.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Clopyralid was extracted with aqueous acetonitrile containing formic acid and the extracts were mixed in a citrate buffer consisted of magnesium sulfate anhydrous, NaCl, sodium citrate dihydrate and disodium hydrogencitrate sesquihydrate followed by centrifugation. The supernatants were filtered through a nylon membrane filter and used for the analysis of clopyralid. The method was validated by accuracy and precision experiments on the samples fortified at 3 different levels of clopyralid. LC-MS/MS in positive mode was employed to quantitatively determine clopyralid in the food samples. Matrix-matched calibration curves were inearranged from 0.001 to 0.25 mg/kg with r2 > 0.994. The limits of detection and quantification were determined to be 0.001 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. There covery values of clopyralid for tified at 0.01 mg/kg in the control samples ranged from approximately 82 to 106% with relative standard deviations below 2 0%.

    CONCLUSION:

    The method developed in this study meets successfully the Codex guideline for pesticide residue analysis in food samples. This, the method could be applicable to determine pesticides in foods produced domestically and internationally.

  • Risk Analysis of Arsenic in Rice Using by HPLC-ICP-MS

    Jae-Min An, Dae-Han Park, Hyang-Ran Hwang, Soon-Young Chang, Mi-Jung Kwon, In-Sook Kim, Ik-Ro Kim, Hye-Min Lee, Hyun-Ji Lim, Jae-Ok Park, Gwang-Hee Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 291-301

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.35
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    BACKGROUND:

    Rice is one of the main sources for inorganic arsenic among the consumed crops in the world population’s diet. Arsenic is classified into Group 1 as it is carcinogenic for humans, according to the IARC. This study was carried out to assess dietary exposure risk of inorganic arsenic in husked rice and polished rice to the Korean population health.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Total arsenic was determined using microwave device and ICP-MS. Inorganic arsenic was determined by ICP-MS coupled with HPLC system. The HPLC-ICP-MS analysis was optimized based on the limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and recovery ratio to be 0.73-1.24 μg/kg, 2.41-4.09 μg/kg, and 96.5-98.9%, respectively. The inorganic arsenic concentrations of daily exposure (included in body weight) were 4.97×10-3 (≥20 years old) - 1.36×10-2 (≤2 years old) μg/kg b.w./day(PTWI 0.23-0.63%) by the husked rice, and 1.39×10-1 (≥20 years old) - 3.21×10-1 (≤2 years old) μg/kg b.w./day (PTWI 6.47-15.00%) by the polished rice.

    CONCLUSION:

    The levels of overall exposure to total and inorganic arsenic by the husked and polished rice were far lower than the recommended levels of The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), indicating of little possibility of risk.

  • Risk Assessment of Operator Exposure During Treatment of Fungicide Dithianon on Apple Orchard

    ll Kyu Cho, Su Jin Kim, Ji Myung Kim, Young Goun Oh, Jae Ung Seol, Ji Ho Lee, Jeong Han Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 302-311

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.40
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    BACKGROUND:

    Dithianon (75%) formulation were mixed and sprayed as closely as possible by normal practice on the ten farms located in the Mungeong of South Korea. Patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin were used for measurement of the potential exposure of dithianon on the applicators wearing standardized wholebody outer and inner dosimeter (WBD). This study has been carried out to determine the dermal and inhalation exposure to dithianon during preparation of spray suspension and application with a power sprayer on a apple orchard.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    A personal air monitor equipped with an air pump, IOM sampler and cassette, and glass fiber filter was used for inhalation exposure. The field studies were carried out in a apple orchard. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored with a thermometer and a hygrometer. Wind speed was measured using a pocket weather meter. All mean field fortification recoveries were between 85.1% and 99.1% in the level of 100 LOQ (limit of quantification), while the LOQ for dithianon was 0.05 μg/mL using HPLC-DAD. The exposure to dithianon on arms of the mixer/loader (0.0794 mg) was higher than other body parts (head, hands, upper body, or legs). The exposure to dithianon on the applicator’s legs (3.78 mg) was highest in the body parts. The dermal exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 10 and 8.10 mg, respectively, from a grape orchard. The inhalation exposure during application was estimated as 0.151 mg, and the ratio of inhalation exposure was 11.2% of the dermal exposure (inner clothes).

    CONCLUSION:

    The dermal and inhalation exposure on the applicator appeared to be 4.203 mg - 25.064 mg and 0.529 μg - 116.241 μg, respectively. The total exposures on the agricultural applicators were at the level of 2.596 mg - 25.069 mg to dithianon during treatment for apple orchard. The TER showed 3.421 (>1) when AOEL of dithianon was used as a reference dose for the purpose of risk assessment of the mixing/loading and application.

  • Phylogeny of Yeasts Isolated from the Flower of Aster spathulifolius Maxim. and Screening of Biosurfactant Producers

    Jong-Shik Kim, Dae-Shin Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 312-316

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.32
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    BACKGROUND:

    Yeast biotechnology finds applications in various industries. Hence, we sought to explore the yeasts associated with the flower of Aster spathulifolius Maxim. This study aimed to isolate yeasts from the flower of the plant and screen for biosurfactant–producing yeasts.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    We collected flowers of Aster spathulifolius Maxim. and performed pure isolation using four types of media. In total, 117 strains belonging to 4 genera, namely, Cryptococcus (75 strains), Aureobasidium pullulans (30 strains), Candida (11 strains), and Rhodotorula (1 strain), were isolated and identified by ITS sequencing. Upon in-depth analysis, Cryptococcus, the most dominant genus (75 strains) was categorized into the ‘Unknown group’. Upon in-depth analysis of A. pullulans, we discovered the ‘Unknown group I’ (27 strains) and the ‘Unknown group II’ (2 strains), which have not been reported previously. Two A. pullulans isolates with potent surfactant activity were selected via the screening procedure.

    CONCLUSION:

    In this study, a total of 117 strains were isolated from the flower of Aster spathulifolius Maxim. In addition, two biosurfactant-producing yeasts were identified from among the isolated yeasts.

  • Water-dispersible Clay Content in Summer Rainy Season for Korean Irrigated Rice Paddy Fields as Affected by Cultivated Years Using Heavy Agro-machinery and Soil Properties

    Kyung Hwa Han / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 317-323

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.34
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    BACKGROUND:

    This study was conducted to evaluate the water-dispersible clay content of paddy soils over the country in the summer rainy season as affected by cultivated years using heavy agro-machinery and soil properties such as texture and exchangeable sodium percentage.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Water-dispersible clay content of 16 soil series of Korean paddy soils over the country were investigated in summer rainy season from July to August, 2006 by Middleton’s method. Water-dispersible clay content ranged from non-detected to 4.8%, showing maximum value from the fine textured soils and high clay dispersibility in average from the coarse textured soils. Longer cultivated years using agro-machinery more than 40 hp result in higer water-dispersible clay content for 60% of studied paddy soils with less than 5% of exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Exceptionally, soils with relatively big difference of ESP at about 10 percent showed higher water-dispersible clay content with higher ESP.

    CONCLUSION:

    Long years of cultivation using agro-machinery with more than 40 hp enhanced water-dispersiblility of clay in approximately 60% of the studied paddy fields except for salt-affected soils.

  • Analysis of Gene Expression in Larval Fat Body of Plutella Xylostella Under High Temperature

    Kwang Ho Kim, Dae-Weon Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.4, 324-332

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.4.43
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    BACKGROUND:

    Insects are ectothermic organisms in terrestrial ecosystems and play various roles such as controlling plant biomass and maintaining species diversity. Because insects are ectothermic, their physiological responses are very sensitive to environmental temperature which determines survival and distribution of insect population and that affects climate change. This study aimed to identification of genes contributing to fitness under high temperature.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    To identify genes contributing to fitness under high temperature, the transcriptomes of fat body in Plutella xyostella larva have been analyzed via next generation sequencing. From the fat body transcriptomes, structure-related proteins, heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes and detoxification proteins were identified. Genes encoding proteins such as structural proteins (cuticular proteins, chitin synthase and actin), stress-related protein (cytochrome P450), heat shock protein and antioxidant enzyme (catalase) were up-regulated at high temperature. In contrast expression of glutathione S transferase was down-regulated.

    CONCLUSION:

    Identifications of temperature-specific up- or down-regulated genes can be useful for detecting temperature adaptation and understanding physiological responses in insect pests.