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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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Current Issue 2017. Vol.36, Iss.3 Cover image Contents list Print articles

Orginal Articles

  • Change in Available Phosphate by Application of Phosphate Fertilizer in Long-term Fertilization Experiment for Paddy Soil

    Sun-Gang Yun, Myung-Sook Kim, Seok-Cheol Kim, Seong-Jin Park, Chang-Hoon Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 141-146

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.27
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    BACKGROUND:

    Phosphorus(P) is a vital factor for rice but excess input of phosphorus fertilizer can cause environmental risk and waste of fertilizer resources. We studied to assess the change of available phosphate, P balance, critical concentration of available phosphate under a rice single system.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The changes of available phosphate of paddy soil were examined from long-term fertilization experiment which was started in 1954 at the National Academy ofAgricultural Science. The treatments were no phosphate fertilization(No fert., andN), phosphate fertilization(NPK, NPKC, and NPKCLS). The available phosphorus concentrations in treatmentswithout phosphate fertilizer (No fert. andN)were decreased continuously. But, after 47 years, available phosphate content in phosphate fertilizer treatment (NPK,NPKC, andNPKCLS) reached at the highest (245~331 mg kg-1), showing a tendency to decrease afterward. The mean annual P field balance in these treatments (NPK,NPKC, andNPKCLS) had positive values that varied from16.6 to 17.5 kg ha-1 year-1, and ratio of residual P were increased. These showed that phosphate fertilizer in soil were converted into the form of residual phosphorus which was not easily extracted by available phosphate extractant. Also, Itwas estimated that the critical value of available phosphate for rice cultivationwas 120mg kg-1 using Cate-Nelson equation.

    CONCLUSION:

    We concluded that no more phosphate fertilizer should be applied in rice single system if soil available phosphate is higher than the critical P value.

  • Nutrient Leaching and Crop Uptake in Weighing Lysimeter Planted with Soybean as Affected by Water Management

    Ye-Jin Lee, Kyung-Hwa Han, Seul-Bi Lee, Jwa-Kyung Sung, Yo-Sung Song, Deog-Bae Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 147-153

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.30
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    BACKGROUND:

    Soil water content strongly depends on weather condition and irrigation, and it could influence on crop nutrient use efficiency. This study was performed to assess nutrient uptake of soybean by soil water condition.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    In this study, nutrient leaching and crop uptake as affacted bywatermanagement practice was investigated using weighing lysimeter which is located in National institute of agricultural science, Wanju, Jeonbuk province fromJune 2015 toOctober 2016. Water supply for soybean (cv. Daewon)wasmanagedwith irrigation and rainfall. Nitrate leaching was greatest in the rainfall treatment at early July 2016.Yield of soybean in the rainfall treatment was only 25%compared to the irrigation due to the drought at flowering and podding period. The uptake of nitrogen was considerably reduced by drought whereas the uptake of phosphorus and potassium was less affected by drought.

    CONCLUSION:

    It was proven that nitrogen loss and uptake were dependent on soil water condition. Therefore, irrigation water management to maintain available soil moisture capacity is critical to nitrogen uptake and yield of soybean.

  • Simultaneous Determination and Monitoring of Bisphenols in River Water using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Jihyun Kim, Jeong-Heui Choi, Tae-Woo Kang, Taegu Kang, Soon-Hong Hwang, Jae-Han Shim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 154-160

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.25
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    BACKGROUND:

    This studywas carried out to establish an efficient sample preparation for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols (BPs) in river water samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sample preparation was examined with conventional extraction methods, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and their efficiencywas compared with validation results, including linearity of calibration curve, method detection limit (MDL), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, and precision.

    METHODSANDRESULTS:

    TheBPs (bisphenolA, BPA; bisphenol B, BPB; bisphenol C, BPC; bisphenol E, BPE; bisphenol F, BPF; bisphenol S, BPS) were analyzed using GC-MS. The range ofMDLs by SPE and LLEmethodswas 0.0005∼0.0234 μg/L and 0.0037∼0.2034 μg/L, and that of LOQswas 0.0015∼0.0744 μg/L and 0.0117∼0.6477 μg/L, respectively. The calibration curve obtained from standard solution of 0.004∼4.0 μg/L(SPE) and 0.016∼16 μg/L (LLE) showed good linearity with r2 value of 0.9969 over. Accuracy was 93.2∼108% and 97.4∼120%, and precisionwas 1.7∼4.6%and 0.7∼6.5%, respectively. The values of MDL and LOQ resulted from the SPE method were higher than those from the LLE method, particularly those values of BPAwere highest among theBPs. Based on the results, the SPE method was applied to determine the BPs in river water samples. Water samples were collected from mainstream, tributary and sewage wastewater treatment plants (SWTPs) in theYeongsan river basin. The concentration of BPB, BPC, BPE, BPF andBPSwere not detected in all sites, whereas BPA was ranged 0.0095∼0.2583 μg/L, which was 0.0166∼0.0810 μg/L for mainstreams, 0.0095∼0.2583 μg/L for tributaries, 0.0352∼0.1217 μg/L for SWTPs.

    CONCLUSION:

    From these results, the SPE method was very effective for the simultaneous determination of BPs in river water samples using GC-MS.We provided that it is a convenient, reliable and sensitive method enough to monitor and understand the fate of the BPs in aquatic ecosystems.

  • Effect of Nitrogen Fertigation on The Growth and Nutrition Uptake of ‘Brightwell’ Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Yong-Bum Kwack, Won-Byoung Chae, Mock-hee Lee, Hae-Won Jeong, Han-Cheol Rhee, Jin-Gook Kim, Hong-Lim Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 161-168

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.28
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    BACKGROUND:

    Rabbiteye blueberry(Vaccinium ashei Reade) has lownutrient uptake efficiency due to its shallow and fibrous root system without root hairs. This study was carried out to establish an efficient nutrient application standard by investigating the effect of nitrogen fertigation on the growth and fruit characteristics of rabbiteye blueberry.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    ‘Brightwell’ rabbiteye blueberry was treated with 0, 50, 100 and 200% nitrogen fertigation of recommended fertilizer application (6, 9 and 14 g/bush in the first, second and third years, respectively). The results showed that leaf nitrogen content significantly correlated with the fruit weight and fruit yield. However, canopy area, dry weight, sugar and anthocyanin contents did not correlate significantlywith the leaf nitrogen content. The leaf and stem dry weights of ‘Brightwell’ rabbiteye blueberry during the third year of plantingwere the highest with 50% nitrogen fertigation (leaf dry weight=723.7 g/bush; stem dry weight=890.7 g/bush). Maximum fruit yield of ‘Brightwell’ rabbiteye blueberry (12.9 kg/bush) was observed during the third year of planting with 50% nitrogen fertigation and thiswas about 70%greater than the treatment that received no nitrogen fertigation. The fruit yields of ‘Brightwell’ rabbiteye blueberry during the third year of planting treated with 100 and 200% nitrogen fertigation were 11.0 and 11.5 kg/bush, and these were 17 and 12%lower than the 50%nitrogen fertigation treatment, respectively. Further, the efficiency of nitrogen utilization was the highest (90%) with 50% nitrogen fertigation and lowest (18%) with 200% nitrogen fertigation.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results of this study suggests that fertigationwith 50%of the recommended fertilizer could be most effective for enhancing the growth and nitrogen use efficiency of rabbiteye blueberry.

  • Budbreak, Floral Bud and Fruit Characteristics of Kiwifruit as Affected by Various Windbreaks

    Yong-Bum Kwack, Hong Lim Kim, Mockhee Lee, Han-Cheol Rhee, Youn-Sig Kwak, Yong Bok Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 169-174

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.21
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    BACKGROUND:

    Kiwifruit growers build their vineyards using many windbreaks to protect their kiwifruit vines from defoliation injury by strong winds such as typhoon. In this study, we have compared fruit quality, budbreak rate and floral bud as affected by windbreaks. And also we surveyed several microclimate indices of kiwifruit orchard depending on the coveringmaterials of arch-type windbreaks.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Five different windbreak materials including polyethylene film (PE), blue- and white-colored nets were tested in pipe-framed archtype kiwifruit vineyards as the covering materials. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), annual mean temperature (AMT) and chill unit (CU) as well as fruit quality were compared among the covering materials. In all treatments, annual PAR was more than 400 μmol m-2 s-1, in which kiwifruit leaf could reach its maximum photosynthesis, since the leaves were emerged. Annual mean temperature was greater in 0.1 mm-PE covering as much as 1‒2℃ than other windbreaks. In CU calculated by three different models, all windbreaks showed more than 1400 CU that is fully fulfilled CU for kiwifruit rest completion. There were no difference in budbreak rate among the coveringmaterials. Fruit weight was heavier in 0.1 mm-PE and white-net (4 mm) than other windbreaks.

    CONCLUSION:

    Regardless of the windbreak materials, the PARquantitywas enough for kiwifruit photosynthesis. AndCUfor kiwifruit rest completionwas fullyachieved in all treatments. However, with respect to fruit weight, quantity of PAR, andAMT, etc., It is highly recommended for kiwifruit growers to choose 0.1 mm-PE and white-net (4 mm) as for their windbreaks materials.

  • Physicochemical Characteristics of Cultivated Aromatic Rice Germplasm and Comparative Analysis of Flavor Components During Transplanting Time

    Jun Hyun Cho, You Chun Song, Kwang Sik Lee, Sik Won Choi, Mi Ja Lee, Ki Chang Jang, Hyun Young Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Ki Do Park, Woo Duck Seo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 175-183

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.26
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    BACKGROUND:

    The Aromatic rice which is characterized by the flavor ofNurungjiwhen cooked rice, and consumption is increasing recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics and aroma components of five aromatic rice cultivars according to transplanting time.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Quantitative analysis of protein, fat, fatty acid and essential amino acid for five aroma rice cultivars(Hyangmibyeo 2 ho, Aromi,Mihyang, Aranghyangchal, Heughyang)and transplanting time was analyzed by crude protein analyzer, gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and viscosity analysis was done by using rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA). The content of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometer. (GC-MS) As a result, the average protein and lipid contentswere 6.5%and 2.4%, respectively. The content of essential amino acid showed the highest content at 104.4mg/g. There was no significant change in normal nutrients during the transplanting time. ByRVA, cv.Hyangmibyeo 2 ho showed the highest peak and total setback viscosities and lowest breakdown viscosity in early transplantation. The content of 2AP in flavor varieties and transplanting time was quantitatively analyzed by GC-MS. Among the cultivars, Aromi showed the highest 2AP contents at 66.7 μg/100gin normal transplanting time.

    CONCLUSION:

    cv.Aromi and Hyangmibyeo 2 ho were excellent physicochemical properties and 2AP components contentsamongaromatic rice cultivars tested. Theiroptimaltime to transplant was at the beginning of June in the area of Miryang.

  • Residual Dissipation based on Crop Commodities Classification of Boscalid and Spinetoram on Crown Daisy and Sweet Pepper under Green Houses

    Eun-Jin Hwang, Jung-Eun Park, Jung-Ah Do, Hyung-Wook Chung, Hee-Ra Chang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 184-192

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.29
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    BACKGROUND:

    This study was performed to evaluate the residue dissipation of boscalid and spinetoramon crown daisy and sweet pepper affected by the morphology of the crop. The half-lives and dissipation rate constants for boscalid and spinetoram on crown daisy and sweet pepper were calculated. And then lower limit of 95% confidence interval for dissipation rate constant could be used to propose the pre-harvest residue limit.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The pesticide products diluted according to the pesticide label were applied one time on crown daisy and sweet pepper at 2 field sites, respectively. Initial concentration of boscalid and spinetoram on crown daisy after application were in the range of 72.80~117.15 mg/kg and 2.82~4.67 mg/kg, respectively. And Initial concentration of boscalid and spinetoramon sweet pepperwere in the range of 1.58~1.62 mg/kg and 0.10~0.21 mg/kg, respectively. Boscalid and spinetoram for crown daisy dissipted below the maximum residue limit(MRL) at 10 and 2 days after application, respectively. All residues concentration of boscalid and spinetoram for sweet pepper below theMRL at 0 day after application. The half-lives based on dissipation rate constant for boscalid and spinetoram on crown daisy were 4.2~4.9 days and 3.0~2.4 days respectively. And the half-lives for boscalid and spinetoramon sweet pepperwere 6.7~7.0 days and 2.8~4.0 days respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    The difference in initial concentration of boscalid and spinetoram among crop commodities were due to different cropmorphologywith larger surface areas. This study was suggested that pre-harvest residue limit would be calculated from lower limit of 95% confidence interval for dissipation rate constant andwould be useful to protect consumers by controlling the pesticide residues in crop.

  • Growth of Kale Seedlings Affected by the Control of Light Quality and Intensity under Smart Greenhouse Conditions with Artificial Lights

    Jeong-Wook Heo, Jae-Su Lee, Gong-In Lee, Hyun-Hwan Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 193-200

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.31
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    BACKGROUND:

    Plant growth under smart greenhouse (that is plant factory system) conditions of an artificial light type is significantly depending on the artificial light sources such as a fluorescent lamps or Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)with specific spectralwavelengths regardless of the outside environmental changes. In this experiment, characteristics on the growth and compound synthesis of kale seedlings affected by light qualities and intensities provided by LEDs were mentioned.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The kale seedlings which developed 3~4 true leaves were exposed by fluorescent lamps or LEDs lights of red (R), blue+white (BW), blue+red (BR) with 50 (L) or 100 (H) μmol/m2/s1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) under hydroponic culture system of deep flow technique for 50 days. Shoot fresh weight increased under theRH, BWH, andBRHtreatments with higher PPF. Shoot elongation of the seedlings decreased, and polyphenol synthesis promoted by the higher light intensity conditions. Sugar synthesis in the leaveswas above 2 times greater under theRHtreatment of monochromic red light quality with 100 μmol/m2/s1 PPF than 50 μmol/m2/s1 PPF.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results show that the control of light quality and intensity in the smart greenhouse conditions with artificial lights significantly affects the growth and compound synthesis in the fresh kale leaves with higher culture efficiency compared to the conventional soil culture under greenhouse or field conditions. Researches on the optimumlight intensities of the LEDswith special spectral wavelengths are necessary for maximum growth and metabolismin the seedlings.

  • Development of Simultaneous Analytical Method of Veterinary Antibiotics in Manure using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Hyung Suk Chung, Young Jun Lee, Han Sol Lee, Musfiqur Rahman, Humayun Kabir, Byung-Jun Park, Jang-Eok Kim, Jae-Han Shim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 201-210

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.22
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    BACKGROUND:

    The current study was to monitor of 9 veterinary antibiotics (ceftiofur, clopidol, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole, tetracycline, tiamulin, and tylosin) inmanure using liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive and negative electrospray ionization mode.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Sample preparation was carried out usingMcllvaine buffer and citrate salts to adjust the pH of the sample followed by purification with dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE). Separation of analytes during LC-MS/MS analysis was conducted using an Eclipse Plus C18 column and the mobile phase was in gradient mode with, 0.1% formic acid and 5 mM ammonium formate inmethanol (A) and 0.1% formic acid and 5 mM ammonium formate in distilled water (B). The linearity of the matrix-matched calibrations of all tested antibioticswas good, with R2 determination coefficients ≥ 0.9920. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantifications (LOQ) were 0.1-67.0 μg/kg and 0.4-200.0 μg/kg, respectively. Analysis of 13 solid and liquid manure samples taken from the Republic of Korea revealed concentrations less than 0.7 μg/kg for tiamulin, 1497.6 μg/kg for sulfamethazine.

    CONCLUSION:

    To monitor 9 veterinary antibiotics from manure samples in 13 provincial areas throughout the Republic of Korea, an analytical method was developed. The developedmethodwas fully validated and successfully applied for monitoring various veterinary antibiotics in manure samples.

  • Exposure Assessment of Pesticide-Originated Persistent Organic Pollutants in Paddy and Upland Soils in Korea

    Sung-Jin Lim, Young-Tak Oh, Jin-Ho Ro, Seung-Yong Kim, Hyeong-Gon Joo, Min-Ho Lee, Hyo-In Yoon, Geun-Hyoung Choi, Song-Hee Ryu, Byung-Jun Park / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 211-216

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.23
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    BACKGROUND:

    This studywas conducted to investigate residual organochlorine pesticides (ROCPs) in agricultural soils and crops.Agricultural soil samples and crop samples were collected from 93 cities and counties.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Extraction and clean-up for the quantitative analysis of ROCPs were conducted by the modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. Recovery and limit of detection (LOD) of ROCPs in agriculturalsoils and crops were 76.5-103.0 and 75.2-93.2%, 0.01-0.08 and 0.10-0.15 μg/kg, respectively. Detected ROCPs in agricultural soils were α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate, the residue were 2.0-12.0, 1.2-53.1, and 2.2-329.8 μg/kg, respectively. But these pesticides in all green perilla leaf and green pepper samples were not detected.

    CONCLUSION:

    These results showed that ROCPs residues in agricultural soilswere not as high as crop safety threatening.

  • Investigation of Heavy Metals, Residual Pesticides and Nutrient Component from Agricultural By-products Imported as Medium Substrates for Mushroom Cultivation

    Jun Young Kim, Geun Sick Lee, Chan Jung Lee, Seong Hwan Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2017 / v.36, no.3, 217-221

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2017.36.3.24
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    BACKGROUND:

    For the food safety of cultivated mushroom, information on the safety of agricultural by-products imported as mediumsubstrates for mushroom cultivation is urgently needed. Therefore, this study was performed to detect the presence of heavy metals, residual pesticides, and nutrient component in the importedmedium substrates.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Six kinds of medium substrates imported fromnine countries from2015 to 2017 were investigated. A mercury analyzer MA-2000 and an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer OPTIMA 7000DV were used to analyze mercury, lead, arsenic, copper, nickel and cadmium.All of these heavymetalswere detected at lower level than heavymetal tolerance standard level of by-product fertilizer in Korea.When 246 kinds of residual pesticides were examined by GC and HPLC, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and carbendazim were detected from Egyptian beet pulp, Indian cottonseed meal and cottonseed hull, respectively. The content of nutrient components (water, crude ash, crude fat, crude protein and crude fiber) varied among imported countries and the medium substrates.

    CONCLUSION:

    The presence of heavymetals and residual pesticides in imported medium substrates for mushroom cultivation was confirmed. For the safe production of mushroom, this study shows that imported medium materials for mushroom cultivation need to be managed through continuous monitoring.