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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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Current Issue 2018. Vol.37, Iss.3 Cover image Contents list Print articles

Orginal Articles

  • Pollutant Runoff Reduction Efficiency of Surface Cover, Vegetative Filter Strip and Vegetated Ridge for Korean Upland Fields: A Review

    Se-In Park, Hyun-Jin Park, Hye In Yang, Han-Yong Kim, Kwang-Sik Yoon, Woo-Jung Choi / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 151-159

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.21
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    BACKGROUND:

    In this review paper, the effects of surface cover (SCV), vegetative filter strip (VFS), and vegetated ridge (VRD) on the pollutant runoff from steep-sloping uplands were analyzed to compare the pollutant reduction efficiency in runoff (PRErunoff) of the practices and to investigate how slope and rainfall parameters affect the PRErunoff.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The PRErunoff of SCV, VFS, and VRD for pollutants including suspended solids and biological oxygen demand was compared by analysis of variance. The effect of slope and rainfall parameters on the PRErunoff was explored by either mean comparison or regression analysis. It was found that the PRErunoff differs with the practices due to different pollutant reduction mechanisms of the practices. Though the PRErunoff was likely to be affected by site condition such as slope and rainfall (amount and intensity), more comprehensive understanding was not possible due to the limited data set.

    CONCLUSION:

    The PRErunoff of SCV, VFS, and VRD differed due to the distinctive mechanisms of pollutant removal of the practices. It is necessary to accumulate experimental data across a variety of gradient of slope and rainfall for comprehensive understanding of the effects of the practices on pollutant runoff from steep-sloping uplands.

  • Performance of Mixed Cropping of Barley and Hairy Vetch as Green Manure Crops for Following Corn Production

    Kang Bo Shim, Min Tae Kim, Sung Gook Kim, Kun Ho Jung, Weon Tai Jeon, Su Hyun Shin, Jae Un Lee, Jong Ki Lee, Young Up Kwon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 160-165

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.29
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    BACKGROUND:

    Mixed cropping of legume and grass was effective system in view point of providing organic matter and nitrogen or reducing the nitrogen starvation of following crop. The relation of the change of N and P constituents depending on the cropping types and those effects on the growth and nutrient uptake of the following crop were observed.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Three cropping types, hairy vetch mono cropping, barley mono cropping, and mixed cropping of hairy vetch and barley were applied. Soil properties, growth characteristics, and nitrogen production of green manure crops were observed. In additions, the effect of cropping types on the growth pattern of corn as the following crop was observed. In the mixed cropping system, creeping type hairy vetch climbed to the erect type barely for light utilization resulting in improvement of light interception rate and higher LAI (Leaf Area Index) than in mono cropping. Mixed cropping showed higher biomass production and soil nitrogen availability among the cropping types, indicating relatively much more nutrient supply and higher yield production of following crop.

    CONCLUSION:

    Mixed cropping showed relatively higher LAI (dry matter) mainly because of intense competition for light utilization usually after flowering stage. Mixed cropping also showed relatively higher yield of corn, the following crop rather than other types, mainly due to the more biomass production potential and higher N and P production ability. Therefore, mixed cropping was adaptable method to reduce or replace chemical fertilizer application for environmentally-friendly agriculture.

  • Nitrogen Leaching and Balance of Soils Grown with Cabbage in Weighing Lysimeter

    Ye Jin Lee, Jung Hun Ok, Seul Bi Lee, Jwa Kyung Sung, Yo Sung Song, Deog Bae Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 166-171

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.23
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    BACKGROUND:

    Nitrogen leaching depends on the drainage pattern and nitrate content, and those are influenced by soil hydraulic properties and fertility. The purpose of this study was to confirm how soil texture contributed to leaching and balance of nitrogen, as well as to drainage.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    This study was performed using undisturbed weighing lysimeters which were piled up with clay loam (Songjung series) and sandy loam (Sanju series) soils in National Institute of Agricultural Science experimental field. Chinese cabbage was cultivated from August 30 to October 31, 2017. The application rates of N, P2O5, and K2O were 21.5, 7.8, and 15.0 kg 10a-1, respectively, and irrigation was supplied at –33 kPa in 30 cm soil depth. Drainage in clay loam was not noticeable, although it was increased by rainfall in early September. By contrast, the trend of drainage in sandy loam was strongly dependent upon rainfall pattern. Owing to different drainage patterns between both soil textures, nitrogen leaching was 5-fold higher in sandy loam than in clay loam. Nitrogen use efficiencies in clay loam and sandy loam were represented as 43% and 52%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    The pattern of drainage and nitrogen leaching were greatly depended on clay content in soil. From this study, we carefully suggest that soil texture should be considered as an incidental factor to estimate nitrogen balance.

  • Effect of Application Rate of Composted Animal Manure on Nitrous Oxide Emission from Upland Soil Supporting for Sweet potato

    Sung Un Kim, Chuanpit Ruangcharus, Hyun Ho Lee, Hye Jin Park, Chang Oh Hong / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 172-178

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.28
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    BACKGROUND:

    Composted animal manure applied to the arable soil for improving soil quality and enhancing crop productivity causes greenhouse gas emissions such as nitrous oxide (N2O) by processes of nitrification and denitrification. However, little studies have been conducted on determining effect of application ratio of composted animal manure on N2O emission rate and its annual emission pattern from upland soil in South Korea. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine N2O emission rate and its annual emission pattern from upland soil supporting for sweet potato.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Composted animal manure was applied at the ratio of 0, 10, and 20 Mg/ha to an upland soil supporting for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Nitrous oxide emission was examined during growing season and non-growing season from May 2016 through May 2017. Daily N2O fluxes showed peaks right after applications of composted animal manure and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. Precipitation and soil water content affected daily N2O flux during non-growing season. Especially, N2O flux was strongly associated with water filled pore space (WFPS). We assumed that the majority of N2O measured during growing season of sweet potato was produced from nitrification and subsequent denitrification. Annual cumulative N2O emission rate significantly increased with increasing application ratio of composted animal manure. It increased to 12.0 kg/ha/yr from 8.73 kg/ha/yr at control with 10 Mg/ha of composted animal manure and to 14.0 kg/ha/yr of N2O emission with 20 Mg/ha of the manure.

    CONCLUSION:

    To reduce N2O emission from arable soil, further research on developing management strategy associated with use of the composted animal manure and soil moisture is needed.

  • Efficiency and Longevity of In-situ Stabilization Methods in Heavy Metal Contaminated Arable Soils

    Seo Jun Kim, Se jin Oh, Sung-Chul Kim, Sang Soo Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 179-188

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.31
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    BACKGROUND:

    Reclamation of heavy metal-contaminated agricultural fields has intensively been done to ensure the soil quality and food security. This study evaluated the efficiency and longevity of current physical and chemical approaches for heavy metal-contaminated soils.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Concentrations of 0.1 N HCl-leachable trace metals of Cd, Pb, and As from the stabilizing agents-treated soils decreased by 50%, 70%, and 40%, respectively, compared to the control. Among the stabilizing agents, the CaCO3 was the best for stabilization. For physical stabilization, the soil dressing reduced the concentrations of Cd, Pb, and As by 88%, 94%,and 88%, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, the dilution of the contaminated soils decreased the metals by an average of 25.3% when compared with the control. The longevity of each stabilization method was determined by using the availability assessment of heavy metals in the soils. Results showed that the leaching methods using HCl and NH4NO3 had 120 and 32 weeks longevity, respectively. Interestingly, any stabilization efficacy was not found over the time for Cd and Pb (i.e., cation metals), whereas the stabilization efficacy of As was sharply decreased under 50% after 32 weeks. However, the change of metal concentration was not significant with the physical stabilization compared to the chemical stabilization.

    CONCLUSION:

    The stabilization methods should carefully be selected based on long-term monitoring under climate conditions.

  • Comparative Analysis of Nitrogen Concentration of Rainfall in South Korea for Nonpoint Source Pollution Model Application

    Dong Ho Choi, Min-Kyeong Kim, Seung-Oh Hur, Sung-Chang Hong, Soon-Kun Choi / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 189-196

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.22
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    BACKGROUND:

    Water quality management of river requires quantification of pollutant loads and implementation of measures through monitoring study, but it requires labour and costs. Therefore, many researchers are performing nonpoint source pollution analysis using computer models. However, calibration of model parameters needs observed data. Nitrogen concentration in rainfall is one of the factors to be considered when estimating the pollutant loads through application of the nonpoint source pollution model, but the default value provided by the model is used when there are no observed data. Therefore, this study aims to provide the representative nitrogen concentration of the rainfall for the administrative district ensuring rational modeling and reliable results.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    In this study, rainfall monitoring data from June 2015 to December 2017 were used to determine the nitrogen concentration in rainfall for each administrative district. Range of the NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were 0.41~6.05 mg/L, 0.39~2.27 mg/L, respectively, and T-N concentration was 0.80~7.71 mg/L. Furthermore, the national average of T-N concentration in this study was 2.84±1.42 mg/L, which was similar to the national average of T-N 3.03 mg/L presented by the Ministry of Environment in 2015. Therefore, the nitrogen concentrations suggested in this study can be considered to be resonable values.

    CONCLUSION:

    The nitrogen concentrations estimated in this study showed regional differences. Therefore, when estimating the pollutant loads through application of the nonpoint source pollution model, resonable parameter estimation of nitrogen concentration in rainfall is possible by reflecting the regional characteristics.

  • Effects of Electro-conductivity on Growth of Beet and Turnip in the Reclaimed Land Soil

    Ji-Young Jo, Ho-Young Sung, Jin-Hyuk Chun, Jong-Seok Park, Sang-Un Park, Young-Jun Park, Sun-Ju Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 197-206

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.25
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    BACKGROUND:

    The present study aimed to examine the crops capable of growing and adapting to the external environment and various stresses of reclaimed agriculture land for the development of high value-added agricultural utilization technology based on reclaimed land through standardization and empirical study of cultivation environment for cultivating crops.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Two crops namely turnips and beets were selected for the salt tolerance test of soil environmental conditions on reclaimed land. Turnip and beet seedlings were planted on the soil collected at the 'Seokmun' reclaimed land. There are five treatments such as non-treatment, 1.0, 2.0 (control), 4.0 and 8.0 dS‧m-1 of EC. The contents of betacyanin in beet roots was highest in control and decreased with increasing salt concentration. The GSL contents in the turnip roots waswere highest at EC 2.0 and decreased with increasing salt concentration, whereas those in turnip leaves waswere high both in the non-treated control and atthe EC 1.0-treatment. But, tThere was, however, no statistical differences among the treatments.

    CONCLUSION:

    The degree of salt tolerance of crops was examined, and the limit EC iswas expected to be 3.0~4.0 dS‧m-1 as reported to date. If the soil improvement is performed and irrigation systems are used in the actual reclaimed land, the EC of supplied irrigation will be low, and desalination effecttreatment by the lower EC of the supplied irrigation on the soil will lead to more favorable soil condition of the rhizosphere and cultivation environment offor the crops than those in the port experiment. Therefore, monitoring the salinity, water content and ground water level will enable prediction of the rhizosphere environment, and setting up irrigation management and supplying irrigation will lead to crop cultivation results that are close to normal.

  • Effect of Regulation of Leaf to Fruit Ratio on the Fruit Growth and Quality of ‘Haryejosaeng’ Satsuma Mandarin in Non-Heated Plastic Film House

    Seok-Beom Kang, Jae-Ho Joha, Young-Eel Moon, Hae-Jin Lee, Seung-Gap Han, Kyung-Jin Park, Sang-Suk Kim, Young-Hun Choi / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 207-212

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.26
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    BACKGROUND:

    Recently, the need for a method to cultivate ‘Haryejosaeng’ Satsuma mandarin has been increasing. However, there is limited information available as this is a new Satsuma mandarin cultivar, which was bred by the RDA in 2004. Many farmers who cultivate this cultivar follow the cultivation method similar to that used for ‘Miyagawa’ Satsuma mandarin, and suffer low production of optimum-sized fruits.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    This study was conducted to find out the optimum ratio of leaf–to-fruit for the stable production of high quality ‘Haryejosaeng’ Satsuma mandarin fruits in a non-heated plastic film house. Seven-year-old ‘Haryejosaeng’ Satsuma mandarin trees were used in the study. Before the treatment, the leaf–to-fruit ratio ranged from 5.7 to 17.9. The treatments included 10, 20, 30, and 40 leaves per fruit. The fruits were removed if over fruiting was observed at day 60 after full bloom. We investigated the fruit size and quality on the day of harvest. Flowering and fruiting patterns in each treatment were recorded for the following year. In the experiments, the flower–to-leaf ratio was 1.12 to 1.74. As the leaf–to-fruit ratio decreased, the fruit size and weight also decreased. Contrarily, the higher the ratio of leaf–to–fruit, the higher fruit size and weight were. It was noted that the ratio of 20:1 was ideal to produce the M grade optimum-sized Satsuma mandarin fruits on the day of harvest. However, higher ratio might result in fruits weighting above 100 g. There was no difference among the treatments in terms of fruit quality, such as total soluble solid contents, titratable acid, and color. In the subsequent years, flowering and fruiting in the treatments were lowered when the leaf number per fruit was 10, but they were improved when the leaf number per fruit was above 20.

    CONCLUSION:

    Based on the above results, the optimum ratio of leaf–to-fruit was found to be 20:1 for flowering and fruiting of ‘Haryejosaeng’ Satsuma mandarin. It is important that optimum ratio of leaf–to-fruit is set as a standard to produce good grade and quality of ‘Haryejosaeng’ Satsuma mandarin fruits.

  • Dissipation and Processing Factor of Etofenprox and Fenitrothion Residue in Chinese Matrimony Vine by drying

    Hyun Ho Noh, Jae Yun Lee, Hyo Kyoung Park, Hye Rim Jeong, Jung Woo Lee, Seung Hyeon Jo, Hyeyoung Kwon, Kee Sung Kyung / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 213-220

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.30
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    BACKGROUND:

  • Isolation and Identification of Postharvest Spoilage Fungi from Mulberry Fruit in Korea

    O-Chul Kwon, Wan-Taek Ju, Hyun-Bok Kim, Gyoo-Byung Sung, Yong-Soon Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 221-228

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.24
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    BACKGROUND:

    Spoilage fungi can reduce the shelf life of fresh fruits and cause economic losses by lowering quality. Especially, mulberry fruits have high sensitivity to fungal attack due to their high water content (> 70%) and soft texture. In addition, the surface of these fruits is prone to damage during harvesting and postharvest handling. However, any study on postharvest spoilage fungi in mulberry fruit has not been reported in Korea. This study aimed to examine the spoilage fungi occurring in mulberry fruits during storage after harvest.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    In this study, we isolated postharvest spoilage fungi from mulberry fruits stored in refrigerator (fresh fruits) and deep-freezer (frozen fruits) and identified them. In the phylogenetic analysis based on comparisons of the ITS rDNA sequences, the 18 spoilage fungi isolated from mulberry fruits and the 25 reference sequences were largely divided into seven groups that were subsequently verified by high bootstrap analysis of 73 to 100. Alternaria spp. including A. alternate and A. tenuissima, were the most frequently isolated fungi among the spoilage isolates: its occurrence was the highest among the 18 isolates (38.9%).

    CONCLUSION:

    The findings of this study will be helpful for increasing the shelf life of mulberry fruits through the application of appropriate control measures against infection by spoilage fungi during storage.

  • Study on Optimization of Cytoplasm Conditions for In Vitro Micronucleus Test Using Chinese Hamster Lung Cells

    Min Kyoung Paik, Areumnuri Kim, Hye Rim Shin, Kyongmi Chon, Kyung-Hun Park, Ji-Hyock Yoo, Byeong Chul Moon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2018 / v.37, no.3, 229-234

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2018.37.3.27
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    BACKGROUND:

    in vitro micronucleus test (vitMNT) is one of the promising alternative testing methods in genotoxicity test and was adopted as OECD test guideline for chemical registration. This study was conducted to optimize the cytoplasm conditions in vitMNT using Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cell.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    In this study cytokinesis-block micronucleus test was conducted. Mitomycin C and colchicine were used as positive control chemicals and were treated for three hours (short time) or twenty-four hours (long time). Giemsa solution was used for cell staining. For optimization of vitMNT, the final fixative was prepared as five concentrations (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, and 25%) of acetic acid in methanol, and treatment times of the final fixative were varied under four conditions (immediately, one hour, four hours, and one day).

    CONCLUSION:

    Acetic acid at 1% in methanol as the final fixative was most adequate to preserve the cytoplasm around the nucleus in the interphase cells. Also, fixative treatment time of cell suspension for one to four hours may minimize the cell rupture. These results can be helpful for getting an accurate result promptly due to clear visual distinction to score micronucleus in vitMNT using giemsa solution.