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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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Current Issue 2022. Vol.41, Iss.2 Cover image Contents list Print articles

Orginal Articles

  • Effect of Rice Straw on Methane Production Potential of Cow Manure

    So Yun Park, Jeong A Jang, Xin Zhao, Jin-Kyung Hong, Eun Hea Jho / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.2, 71-81

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.2.10
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    BACKGROUND:

    Animal manures are one of the biggest sources of greenhouse gases and improper manage-ment of animal wastes contributes to the increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Con-verting greenhouse gases generated from animal manures to energy is one way of contributing to the net-zero carbon emissions.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The potential for methane production from cow manure (CM) was studied by measuring the methane yield using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. In particular, the effect of co-digestion using rice straw (RM) on the methane production was studied. The methane yields from the co-digestion of CM and RS were statistically similar to that from the mono-digestion of CM or RS. But there was a synergy effect at the CM:RS ratio of 1:2 and 1:1. This can be attributed to the increased C/N ratio. The changed microbial community structure with the addition of substrates (CM, RS) probably led to the increase in the methane produc-tion.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    The methane production potential of the particular CM used in this study was not improved by the addition of RS as a co-substrate. The addition of substrates to the anaerobic sludge promoted the increase in the microbial species having synergetic relationship with methano-gens, and this can partially explain the increase in the methane production with the addition of substrates. Overall, there are needs for further studies to improve the methane yield from CM.

  • Determination and Validation of an Analytical Method for Spiropidion and Its Metabolite Spiropidion-enol (SYN547305) in Agricultural Products with LC-MS/MS

    Sun Young Gu, Su Jung Lee, Hye-Sun Shin, Sung Eun Kang, Yun Mi Chung, Jung Mi Lee, Yong-hyun Jung, Guiim Moon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.2, 82-94

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.2.11
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    BACKGROUND:

    Spiropidion and its metabolite are tetramic acid insecticide and require the establishment of an official analysis method for the safety management because they are newly registered in Korea. Therefore, this study was to determine the analysis method of residual spiropidion and its metabolite for the five representative agricultural products.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Three QuEChERS methods (original, AOAC, and EN method) were applied to optimize the extraction method, and the EN method was finally selected by comparing the recovery test and matrix effect results. Various adsorbent agents were applied to establish the clean up method. As a result, the recovery of spiropidion was reduced when using the dispersive-SPE method with MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) and octadecyl (C18) in soybean. Color interference was minimized by selecting the case including GCB and C18 in addition to MgSO4. This method was established as the final analysis method. LC-MS/MS was used for the analysis by considering the selectivity and sensitivity of the target pesticide and the analysis was performed in MRM mode. The results of the recovery test using the established analysis method and inter laboratory validation showed a valid range of 79.4-108.4%, with relative standard deviation and coefficient of variation were less than 7.2% and 14.4%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    Spiropidion and its metabolite could be analyzed with a modified QuEChERS method, and the established method would be widely available to ensure the safety of residual insecticides in Korea.

  • Residue Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Pesticides (Boscalid and Pyraclostrobin) in Hylomecon vernalis

    Ji-Woo Yu, Min-Ho Song, Jinchan Kim, Kwanghun Lee, Rakdo Ko, Young-Soo Keum, Jiho Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.2, 95-100

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.2.12
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    BACKGROUND:

    This study was aimed to determine characteristics of residues of the soil-treated boscalid and pyraclostrobin within Hylomecon vernalis and to evaluate the risks from intake of the residual pesticides in the crop.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The pesticides were treated to soils at two different concentrations, and the plant samples were collected 57 days after seeding. The samples were extracted using the QuEChERS extraction kit (MgSO4 4 g, NaCl 1 g). The quantitative methods for boscalid and pyraclostrobin were validated using linearity, recovery, and CV (coefficient of variation). Risk assessment of the pesticides was performed using Korea national nutrition statistics 2019.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    The residual levels of boscalid were 0.02-0.05 mg/kg (for the treatment at 6 Kg/10a) and 0.05-0.08 mg/kg (for the treatment at 12 Kg/10a), respectively. The residual concentrations of pyraclostrobin were below the LOQ. The amounts of pesticides were less than Maximum Residue Limits specified by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The maximum hazard indices of boscalid in chwinamul and amaranth for consumers were 0.0075% and 0.1525%, respectively, and it indicates that the risk of the pesticides from the crop is considered to be low.

  • Physicochemical Properties of Root Zone Soil Based on Sand Blending with Coconut Coir and Peat Moss

    Young-Sun Kim, Eun-Ji Bae, Mun-Jin Choi, Tae-Wooung Kim, Geung-Joo Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.2, 101-107

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.2.13
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    BACKGROUND:

    Soil amendment was necessary applied for the sand that had been used to root zone of green ground in golf course because of its low water retention power and cation exchangeable capacity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the mixed ratio of peat moss and coconut coir as soil amendment materials on the soil physicochemical properties applied to rootzone based on sand.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The soil amendments were blended at 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10% by soil volume. The pH in the peat moss treatment was lower than that of control (0% soil amendment), and pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in the coconut coir were higher. The blending ratio of peat moss was negatively correlated with pH of rootzone soil (p<0.01), and that of coconut coir positively with EC (p<0.01). As compared with control, capillary porosity, the physical factors such as air-filled porosity, total porosity, and hydraulic conductivity of rootzone soil were increased by applying peat moss and coconut coir. For correlation coefficients between percentage of soil amendments and soil physical factors, peat moss and coconut coir were positively correlated with porosity and hydraulic conductivity (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSION(S):

    These results indicated that the application of peat moss and coconut coir affected on the change of physicochemical properties of rootzone soil, and improved soil porosity and hydraulic conductivity.

  • Residual Characteristics and Risk Assessments of Metalaxyl-M and Dinotefuran in Crown Daisy

    Min-Ho Song, Ji-Woo Yu, Jinchan Kim, Kwanghun Lee, Rakdo Ko, Young-Soo Keum, Jiho Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.2, 108-114

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.2.14
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    BACKGROUND:

    This study was performed to determine residual characteristics of soil-treated metalaxyl-M and dinotefuran in crown daisy and to evaluate the risks from intake of the residual pesticides in the crop.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The pesticide granules were treated in soil on two levels, and the plants samples were collected 51 days after seeding. The analytes were extracted and partitioned using the QuEChERS extraction packet (MgSO4 4 g, NaCl 1 g). The quantitative methods for metalaxyl-M and dinotefuran were validated in linearity, accuracy, and precision. Risk assessments of the pesticides were performed using Korea national nutrition statistics 2019.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    The residual concentrations of metalaxyl-M in crown daisy were 0.09-0.10 mg/kg (for the treatment at 6 kg/10 a) and 0.17-0.19 mg/kg (12 kg/10 a), respectively. The residual concentrations of dinotefuran in the crop were 0.53-0.75 mg/kg (3 kg/10 a) and 1.17-1.26 mg/kg (6 kg/10 a). The amounts of pesticides were less than MRL (Maximum Residue Limits) according to the Korean MFDS (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety). The HI (Hazard Index) of metalaxyl-M and dinotefuran for consumers was 0.0075% and 0.2250%, respectively. For females in the age between 50-64, the major consumer group, the HIs of the pesticides were <3%. Considering the consumption of crown daisy, they are not considered to be of toxicological concern.

  • Methane Oxidation Potentials of Rice-associated Plant Growth Promoting Methylobacterium Species

    Yeongyeong Kang, Denver I. Walitang, Sundaram Seshadri, Wan-Sik Shin, Tongmin Sa / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.2, 115-124

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.2.15
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    BACKGROUND:

    Methane is a major greenhouse gas attributed to global warming partly contributed by agricultural activities from ruminant fermentation and rice paddy fields. Methanotrophs are microorganisms that utilize methane. Their unique metabolic lifestyle is enabled by enzymes known as methane monooxygenases (MMOs) catalyzing the oxidation of methane to methanol. Rice absorbs, transports, and releases methane directly from soil water to its stems and the micropores and stomata of the plant epidermis. Methylobacterium species associated with rice are dependent on their host for metabolic substrates including methane.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Methylobacterium spp. isolated from rice were evaluated for methane oxidation activities and screened for the presence of sMMO mmoC genes. Qualitatively, the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) activities of the selected strains of Methylobacterium spp. were confirmed by the naphthalene oxidation assay. Quantitatively, the sMMO activity ranged from 41.3 to 159.4 nmol min--1 mg of protein-1. PCR-based amplification and sequencing confirmed the presence and identity of 314 bp size fragment of the mmoC gene showing over 97% similarity to the CBMB27 mmoC gene indicating that Methylobacterium strains belong to a similar group.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    Selected Methylobacterium spp. contained the sMMO mmoC gene and possessed methane oxidation activity. As the putative methane oxidizing strains were isolated from rice and have PGP properties, they could be used to simultaneously reduce paddy field methane emission and promote rice growth.

  • The Residual Characteristic of Chromafenozide and Pyridalyl in Kale

    Jung-Hun Sun, Kyu-Won Hwang, Kyoung-Su Jeong, Tae-Hyun Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Sang-Jeong Park, Joon-Kwan Moon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.2, 125-134

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.2.16
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    BACKGROUND:

    It is a very important task to block distribution of the agricultural products contaminated with pesticides in advance to protect consumers from residual pesticides among the agricultural products. Therefore, this study was performed to determine residual characteristics of pesticides in time-dependent manner and present scientific evidences for pre-harvest residue limit (PHRL) setting.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The tested pesticides, chromafenozide and pyridalyl were sprayed onto the kale twice (seven day intervals) and then the plant samples were collected at 0 (after 3 hours), 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after the last spraying. Residual concentration of chromafenozide in kale decreased with 74.9% (of decreased fraction, field 1) and 85.3% (field 2) and pyridalyl decreased with 81.2% (field 1) and 85.8% (field 2), calculated by comparisons of the concentrations at 0 day and 10 days. Also biological half-lives of chromafenozide in kale were 5.6 day (field 1) and 3.4 day (field 2), and those of pyridalyl were 4.3 day (field 1) and 3.5 day (field 2).

    CONCLUSION(S):

    If the residues of chromafenozide and pyridalyl in kale from 10 days before harvest are less than 37.6 mg/kg and 58.9 mg/kg, respectively, it is expected that safe kale below MRL can be supplied on the pre-harvest day.

  • Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for β-Agonists in Livestock and Fishery Products Using LC-MS/MS

    Tae Ho Lee, Yu Ra Kim, Su Jeong Park, Ji Young Kim, Jang Duck Choi, Gui Im Moon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2022 / v.41, no.2, 135-151

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2022.41.2.17
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    BACKGROUND:

    The β-agonists known as phenyl ethanolamine derivatives have a conjugated aromatic ring with amino group. They are used as tocolytic agents and bronchodilator to human and animal generally, and some of them are used as growth promoters to livestock.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    β-agonists in samples were extracted by 0.4 N perchloric acid and ethyl acetate. The target compounds were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Validation of method was performed according to CODEX guidelines (CAC/GL-71). The matrix matched calibration gave correlation coefficients>0.98, and the obtained recoveries were in the range of 62.0-109.8%, with relative standard deviation ≤ 20.1%. In addition, a survey was performed to inspect any residual β-agonist from 100 samples of livestock and fishery products and ractopamine was detected in one of the 100 samples.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    In this study, we established the analytical method for β-agonists through using the expanded target compounds and samples. And we anticipate that the established method would be used for analysis to determine veterinary drug residues in livestock and fishery products.