p-ISSN 1225-3537e-ISSN 2233-4173
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 171-177
Recently, biomass conversion from agricultural wastes to carbon-rich materials such as biochar has been recognized as a promising option to maintain or increase soil productivity, reduce nutrient losses, and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the agro-ecosystem. This experiment was conducted to select an optimum conditions for enhancing the NH4-N adsorption capacity of rice hull activated biochar.
For deciding the proper molarity of KOH for enhancing its porosity, biochars treated with different molarity of KOH (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8) were carbonized at 600℃ in the reactor. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1.464 mg g-1, and an optimum molarity was selected to be 6 M KOH. For the effect of adsorption capacity to different carbonized temperatures, 6 M KOH-treated biochar was carbonized at 600℃ and 800℃ under the pyrolysis system. The result has shown that the maximum adsorption capacity was 1.76 mg g-1 in the rice hull activated biochar treated with 6 M KOH at 600℃ of pyrolysis temperature, while its non-treated biochar was 1.17 mg g-1. The adsorption rate in the rice hull activated biochar treated with 6 M KOH at 600℃ was increased at 62.18% compared to that of the control. Adsorption of NH4-N in the rice hull activated biochar was well suited for the Langmuir model because it was observed that dimensionless constant (RL) was 0.97 and 0.66 at 600℃ and 800℃ of pyrolysis temperatures, respectively. The maximum adsorption amount (qm) and the bond strength constants (b) were 0.092 mg g-1 and 0.001 mg L-1, respectively, for the rice hull activated biochar treated with 6 M KOH at 600℃ of pyrolysis.
Optimum condition of rice hull activated biochar was 6M KOH at 600℃ of pyrolysis temperature.
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 178-187
Spent coffee grounds are the most valuable resource for agriculture and industry. However, it is almost thrown untreated into landfills or incineration. Composting is an efficient process for converting spent coffee to fertilizer.
Composting was conducted in the compost pile (40 m3) equipped with a forced aeration system. Physical and chemical properties containing temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and moisture were measured through the composting period. Moreover, biological changes were examined for the composting phase using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found 7-14 phyla comprising 250-716 species from a variety phase of compost. During the composting period, Firmicutes were dominated, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria
The result indicated that the use of spent coffee improved the quality of organic fertilizer and changed the microbial communities, unique to the thermal composting stage, which could enhance the composting process. These findings suggest that spent coffee composted material can provide a significant amount of nutrients, thereby supporting plant growth.
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 188-196
In order to cultivate upland crops in reclaimed land, economically appropriate crops should be selected. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is one of the primary sources for inulin in higher plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare growth and inulin of H. tuberosus L. according to the cultivation region in Korea.
21 varieties of H. tuberosus L. were collected in Korea, and then 7 varieties of H. tuberosus L. were selected for this study. To compare growth and inulin, those varieties were cultivated in reclaimed land and upland soils. The growth of H. tuberosus L. significantly decreased when cultivated in reclaimed land. There was an increas at 17.8% in the content of white H. tuberosus L. tuber inulin in reclaimed land.
The content of inulin in H. tuberosus L. tubers was found to be dependent on cultivation region and tuber color. There was a difference of the inulin content between the tubers with different colors in reclaimed land. Purple tubers of P20 were considered suitable varieties for cultivation in reclaimed land. White tubers of W1 and W8 were also considered suitable varieties for cultivation in reclaimed land.
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 197-203
Most lakes have increased concerns about water pollution due to the inflow of non-point sources caused by human activities. Therefore, the lake water quality survey was conducted in order to propose effective plans for water quality management by analyzing the characteristics of lakes and the change of water quality.
In order to investigate the physicochemical water quality in Daedong lake, water quality analysis was undertaken from July 2018 to June 2019. Water temperature was ranged from 7.8 to 34.3℃ and pH varied from 6.9 to 10.2. The concentration of Dissolved oxygen, Suspended solid, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were 5.6 ~ 17.2 mg/L, 2.4 ~ 35.3 mg/L, and 4.5 ~ 15.1 mg/L, and 0.9 ~ 2.8 mg/L, respectively. The Total Nitrogen (T-N) concentration ranged from 0.974 ~ 2.126 mg/L, and Total Phosphorus (T-P) concentration ranged from 0.014 ~ 0.057 mg/L. The Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) ranged from 2.7 ~ 37.9 mg/m3. Through Carlson TSIm assessment using T-P and Chl-a results, evaluating trophic state, Daedong lake was evaluated as mesotrophic.
Water pollution management plan needs such as nutrient removal technology and nonpoint source management for prevention of eutrophication in Daedong lake.
Dae Ho Jung,
Pyoung Ho Yi,
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 204-213
Since the number of crops cultivated in reclaimed land is huge, it is very difficult to quantify the total crop production. Therefore, a non-destructive method for predicting crop production is needed. Salt tolerant root vegetables such as red beets and sugar beet are suitable for cultivation in reclaimed land. If their underground biomass can be predicted, it helps to estimate crop productivity. Objectives of this study are to investigate maximum leaf length and weight of red beet, sugar beet, and turnips grown in reclaimed land, and to determine optimal model with regression analysis for linear and allometric growth models.
AND RESULTS: Maximum leaf length, width, and root fresh weight of red beets, sugar beets, and turnips were measured. Ten linear models and six allometric growth models were selected for estimation of root fresh weight and non-linear regression analysis was conducted. The allometric growth model, which have a variable multiplied by square of maximum leaf length and maximum leaf width, showed highest R2 values of 0.67, 0.70, and 0.49 for red beets, sugar beets, and turnips, respectively. Validation results of the models for red beets and sugar beets showed the R2 values of 0.63 and 0.65, respectively. However, the model for turnips showed the R2 value of 0.48. The allometric growth model was suitable for estimating the root fresh weight of red beets and sugar beets, but the accuracy for turnips was relatively low.
The regression models established in this study may be useful to estimate the total production of root vegetables cultivated in reclaimed land, and it will be used as a non-destructive method for prediction of crop information.
Young Eun Kim,
Seon Wook Kim,
Da Jung Lim,
In Seon Kim
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 214-221
The demand for pesticide registration has kept increasing for minor crop cultivation in greenhouse since Positive List System (PLS) has been launched. Thus, much study on the evaluation of pesticide residues in minor crops is required to examine the demand. In this study, we evaluated residues of acetamiprid, boscalid, imidacloprid and pyraclostrobin in the minor crop mustard green to provide the potential data for their registration.
Pesticide granule formulations of acetamiprid, boscalid, imidacloprid and pyraclostrobin were incorporated into soil and applied onto field soil surface at rates of 3 kg/10a, 6 kg/10a, 3 kg/10a and 6 kg/10a, respectively. The pesticides were also applied at the two times higher than the rates to compare the residues between the application rates. Mustard green seeds were sown 1 day after pesticide application and cultivated under greenhouse conditions. LC/MS/MS analyses coupled with a modified QuEChERs method were employed for determination of the pesticides in plant samples. The method limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the pesticides were 0.01 mg/kg, and the matrix calibration curves of the pesticides showed linearity with coefficient values of determination (r2) greater than 0.995. The average recovery values of the pesticides fortified in control samples at rates of LOQ and 10LOQ ranged from approximately 77.5% to 101.2% with relative standard deviation values lower than 14%. The pesticides in the mustard green samples cultivated for 53 days after sown were determined to be lower than the LOQ level.
Acetamiprid, boscalid, imidacloprid and pyraclostrobin were found at a level lower than 0.01 mg/kg in the minor crop mustard green. Thus, their residues in mustard green would not violate PLS under greenhouse conditions.
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 222-227
Among the biomass conversion techniques of livestock manure, composting process is a method of decomposing organic matter through microorganisms, and converting it into fertilizer in soil. The aerobic composting process is capable of treating cow manure in large quantities, and produces greenhouse gas as CO2 and N2O, although it has economical benefit. By using the activated rice hull biochar, which is a porous material, it was intended to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions, and to produce the compost of which quality was high. Objective of this experiment was to estimate CO2 and N2O emissions through composting process of cow manure with different cooperated biochar contents.
The treatments of activated rice hull biochar were set at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively, during composting cow manure. The CO2 emission in the control was 534.7 L kg-1, but was 385.5 L kg-1 at 15% activated rice hull biochar. Reduction efficiency of CO2 emission was estimated to be 28%. N2O emission was 0.28 L kg-1 in the control, but was 0.03 L min-1 at 15% of activated rice hull biochar, estimating about 89% reduction efficiency.
Greenhouse gas emissions during the composting process of cow manure can be reduced by mixing with 15% of activated rice hull biochar for eco-friendly compost production.
Ok Jung Ju,
Gap June Lim
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 228-236
The closed chamber method is the most commonly used for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields. This method has the advantages of being simple, easily available and economical. However, a measurement result using the chamber method is an estimated value and is complete when the uncertainty is estimated. The methane emissions from a rice paddy account for the largest portion of the greenhouse gas emissions in the agriculture sectors. Although assessment of uncertainty components affecting methane emission from a rice paddy is necessary to take account of dispersion characteristics, research on these uncertainty components is very rare to date. The goal of this study was to elucidate influencing factors on measurement uncertainty of methane concentrations measured by a closed automated chamber system from a rice paddy.
The methane sampling system is located in the rice paddy in Gyeonggi-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services (37° 13′15″ N, 127° 02′22″E). The primary measurement uncertainty components influencing methane concentrations (influencing factors) investigated in this research were repeatability, reproducibility and calibration in the aspects of methane sampling and analytical instrumentation. The magnitudes of the relative standard uncertainty of each influencing factor were quantified and compared.
Results of this study showed what influencing factors were more important in determination of methane concentrations measured using the chamber system and analytical instrumentation located in the monitoring site. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of the methane concentrations in this study would contribute to improving measurement quality of methane fluxes.
Ok Jung Ju,
Gap June Lim
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 237-245
The closed chamber method is the most commonly used for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from upland fields. This method has the advantages of being simple, easily available and economical. However, uncertainty estimation is essential for accurate assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and verification of emission reductions. The nitrous oxide emissions from upland field is very important for the nitrogen budget in the agriculture sectors. Although assessment of uncertainty components affecting nitrous oxide emission from upland field is necessary to take account of dispersion characteristics, research on these uncertainty components is very rare to date. This study aims at elucidation of influencing factors on measurement uncertainty of nitrous oxide concentrations measured by an automated open closed chamber method from upland field.
The nitrous oxide sampling system is located in the upland field in Gyeonggi-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services (37°13′22″ N, 127° 02′22″E). The primary measurement uncertainty components influencing nitrous oxide concentrations (influencing factors) investigated in this research are repeatability, reproducibility and calibration in the aspects of nitrous oxide sampling and analytical instrumentation. The magnitudes of the relative standard uncertainty of each influencing factor are quantified and compared.
Results of this study show what influencing factors are more important in determination of nitrous oxide concentrations measured using the automated open closed chambers located in the monitoring site. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of the nitrous oxide concentrations in this study would contribute to improving measurement quality of nitrous oxide fluxes.
Han Sol Lee,
Su Jung Lee,
Sang Soon Yun,
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 246-252
Pesticides are broadly used to control weeds and pests, and the residues remaining in crops are managed in accordance with the MRLs (maximum residue limits). Therefore, an analytical method is required to quantify the residues, and we conducted a series of analyses to select and validate the quick and simple analytical method for tolpyralate in five agricultural products using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry).
The agricultural samples were extracted with acetonitrile followed by addition of anhydrous magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride, disodium hydrogencitrate sesquihydrate and trisodium citrate dihydrate. After shaking and centrifugation, purification was performed with d-SPE (dispersive-solid phase extraction) sorbents. To validate the optimized method, its selectivity, linearity, LOD (limit of detection), LOQ (limit of quantitation), accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility from the inter-laboratory analyses were considered. LOQ of the analytical method was 0.01 mg/kg at five agricultural products and the linearity of matrix-matched calibration were good at seven concentration levels, from 0.0025 to 0.25 mg/L (R2≥0.9980). Mean recoveries at three spiking levels (n=5) were in the range of 85.2~112.4% with associated relative standard deviation values less than 6.2%, and the coefficient of variation between the two laboratories was also below 13%. All optimized results were validated according to the criteria ranges requested in the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) and Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) guidelines.
In conclusion, we suggest that the selected and validated method could serve as a basic data for detecting tolpyralate residue in imported and domestic agricultural products.
Sun Young Kim,
Nang Hee Kim,
Hyung Joo Yoon
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 253-262
It has been reported that the nutritional composition of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) changes nutrients depending on the host plants. In this study, to confirm whether Locusta migratoria is an edible insect, the nutrients and harmful substances such as heavy metals and pathogens were analyzed and compared according to corn (LC) or wheat (LW) as host plants.
All experimental methods mainly referred to AOAC (2004). The content of crude protein per dry weight was 77.3% in (LW), 1.1 times higher than 69.8% in LC. Crude fat was 6.5% in LW, 2.2 times less than LC 14.3%. Alpha-linolenic acid, which has the highest content among unsaturated fatty acids, was 1.2 times higher in LC (39.9%) than LW (32.5%). As a result of analysis of harmful substances by LC and LW, lead and cadmium among heavy metals were at levels suitable for heavy metal standards of edible insects, and arsenic was not detected in both groups. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were not detected in both groups.
When comparing the overall nutrients composition of LW and LC, it was confirmed nutrients are different depending on the host plants, and the safety was proved.
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 263-272
This paper describes the successful discrimination of GM crops from the respective wild type (WT) controls using spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Despite the many benefits that GM crops, their development has raised concerns, particularly about their potential negative effects on food productionand the environment. From this point of view, the introduction of GM crops into the market requires the development of rapid and accurate identification technologies to ensure consumer safety
The development of a GM crop discrimination model using spectroscopy involved the pre-processing ofthe collected spectral information, the selection of a discriminant model, and the verification of errors. Examples of GM versus WT discrimination using spectroscopy are available for soybeans, tomatoes, corn, sugarcane, soybean oil, canola oil, rice, and wheat. Here, we found that not only discrimination but also cultivar grouping was possible.
Since for the determination of GM crop there is no pre-defined pre-processing method or calibration model, it is extremely important to select the appropriate ones to increase the accuracy in a case-by-case basis.
/ Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.3, 273-279
After transplanting, the recent abnormal low temperature caused physiological disorders of pepper seedlings. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of UV-A LED, a physical elicitor, on the chilling tolerance of pepper seedlings.
Seedlings were continuously irradiated with 370 and 385 nm UV-A LEDs with 30 W·m-2 for 6 d. After that, seedlings were exposed to 4℃ for 6 h and then recovered under the normal growing condition for 2 d. There were no significant differences in growth characteristics of UV-A treatments compared to the control. Fv/Fm values of two UV-A treatments were below 0.8. Electrolyte leakage in the control was increased by chilling stress, while 385 nm UV-A had the significantly lowest value. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of two UV-A treatments significantly increased due to UV-A radiation. However, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the control increased due to chilling stress and tended to decrease again during the recovery time.
We confirmed that UV-A light was effective to induce the chilling tolerance of pepper seedling, and the supplemental radiation of 385 nm UV-A LED before transplanting could be used as a cultivation technique to produce high quality pepper seedlings.