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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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Current Issue 2020. Vol.39, Iss.4 Cover image Contents list Print articles

Orginal Articles

  • Ammonia Adsorption Characteristic of Reusable PAN/zeolite Fibers Made by Electrospinning

    Yeon Hee Ro, Woo Jin Chung, Soon Woong Chang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 281-288

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.33
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    BACKGROUND:

    Generally, ammonia occurs from agricultural waste disposal. Ammonia is known as a harmful substance to the human body and has a bad influence such as eutrophication on the ecosystem. It is possible to remove the ammonia by ammonia adsorption method using natural zeolite, without external influence. However, due to the natural zeolite shape, it is hard to reuse.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Electrospinning method can produce fiber with constant diameter. Moreover, electrospinning method has no limitation for selecting the material to make the fiber, and thus, it is valuable to reform the surface of adsorbent. In this study, reusable membrane was made by electrospinning method. The highest removal efficiency was shown from the membrane with 20% of zeolite included, and it has been verified that it is possible to reuse the membrane through chemical treatment. The highest ammonia removal efficiency was about 92.4%.

    CONCLUSION:

    In this study, ammonia adsorption characteristics of zeolite fibers were studied. Electrospinning method can produce zeolite fiber with even distribution. Ammonia can be removed efficiently from ion exchange ability of the natural zeolite. The result of adsorption isotherm indicated that both Freundlich model and Langmuir model provided the best fit for equilibrium data. And study on desorption has demonstrated that the ion exchange from zeolite was reversible when 0.01 M NaCl and KCl solution were used.

  • Adsorption Characteristics of Anionic Dye by Fe-Decorated Biochar Derived from Fallen Leaves

    Jong-Hwan Park, Hong-Chul Kim, Yeong-Jin Kim, Dong-Cheol Seo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 289-296

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.34
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    BACKGROUND:

    There is a need for a revolutionary method to overcome the problem of biochar, which has relatively low adsorption capacity for existing anion pollutants, along with collectively recycling fallen leaves, a kind of forest by-product. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prepare iron-decorated biochar derived from fallen leaves (Fe-FLB), and to evaluate their adsorption properties to Congo red (CR) as anionic dye.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The adsorption properties of CR by fallen leaves biochar (FLB) and Fe-FLB were performed under various conditions such as initial CR concentration, reaction time, pH and dosage with isotherm and kinetic models. In this study, Fe-FLB prepared through iron impregnation and pyrolysis of fallen leaves contained 56.9% carbon and 6.3% iron. Congo red adsorption by FLB and Fe-FLB was well described by Langmuir model and pseudo second order model and the maximum adsorption capacities of FLB and Fe-FLB were 1.1 mg/g and 25.6 mg/g, respectively. In particular, it was found that the adsorption of CR was occurred by chemical adsorption process by the outer boundary layer of Fe-FLB.

    CONCLUSION:

    Overall, the production of Fe-FLB using fallen leaves and using it as an anion adsorbent is considered to be a way to overcome the problem of biochar with relatively low anion adsorption in addition to the reduction effect of waste.

  • Effect of Biochar Application on Nitrous Oxide Emission in the Soil with Different Types of Nitrogen Fertilizer During Corn (Zea may) Cultivation

    Sun-il Lee, Gun-yeob Kim, Eun-jung Choi, Jong-sik Lee, Hyo-Suk Gwon, Joung-du Shin / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 297-304

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.35
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    BACKGROUND:

    Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil is expected to depend on the types of nitrogen fertilizer used. Biochar has recently been proposed as a potential mitigation of climate change by reducing the N2O emission. Although laboratory studies reported that biochar applications could reduce N2O emission, the number of field-based studies is still limited. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of biochar on N2O emission when different nitrogen fertilizers were applied in corn cultivated field.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The field experiment consisted of six treatments: urea fertilizer without biochar (U), ammonium sulfate fertilizer without biochar (A), oil cake fertilizer without biochar (O), urea fertilizer with biochar (U+B), ammonium sulfate fertilizer with biochar (A+B), and oil cake fertilizer with biochar (O+B). Biochar was applied at a rate of 10 t/ha. Greenhouse gas fluxes were measured during growing seasons using static vented chambers. The cumulative N2O emissions were 0.99 kg/ha in the U, 1.23 kg/ha in the A, 3.25 kg/ha in the O, 1.19 kg/ha in the U+B, 0.86 kg/ha in the A+B, and 1.55 kg/ha in the O+B.

    CONCLUSION:

    It was found that N2O emission was related to application of both nitrogen fertilizer type and biochar. In particular, the N2O reduction effect was the highest in the corn field incorporated with biochar when oil cake was applied to the soil.

  • Comparison of Residue Patterns for Systemic and Non-systemic Pesticides in Strawberry

    Jung-Sun You, Hye-Min Gwak, Hee-Ra Chang / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 305-311

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.36
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    BACKGROUND:

    The healthy food trend has encouraged the consumption of natural products, including berries. This trend is expected to increase the strawberry consumption. There has been a concern about the exposure of pesticides approved for use on strawberry. In this study, the dissipation patterns of systemic and non-systemic pesticides were evaluated in strawberry under plastic-covered greenhouse conditions.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Cyflumetofen and dimethomorph were applied on strawberry in the critical GAP (Good Agricultural Practices). Strawberries were harvested at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after final application of the pesticides. The analyses of the residual pesticideswere performed by HPLC-DAD with C18 column. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) of cyflumetofen and dimethomorph were 0.04 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. The recovery of cyflumetofen and dimethomorph were 88.1 ~ 103.3% and 79.0 ~ 110.2% for the spiked two levels (LOQ and 10LOQ), respectively. The biological half-lives of cyflumetofen and dimethomorph werer 7.5 and 8.9 days, respectively. The dissipation rates in strawberry were calculated by the statistics method at a 95% confidence level. The distribution showed that pesticides with low log Pow were indicated by the decreased dissipation rate and pesticides with similar log Pow and low solubility also showed the decreased dissipation rate.

    CONCLUSION:

    The residues of cyflumetofen and dimethomorph in strawberry at time 0 after the final application were below the established MRL in Korea. The dissipation behavior of systemic and non-systemic pesticides in strawberry is affected by their log Pow and water solubility values.

  • Photoreversibility of Fruiting and Growth in Oriental Melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Sung-Chang Hong, Jin-Ho Kim, So-Jin Yeob, Min-Wook Kim, Sae-Nun Song, Gyu-Hyun Lee, Kyeong-Sik Kim, Seon-Young Yu / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 312-318

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.37
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    BACKGROUND:

    Photoreversibility, a reversion of the inductive effect of a brief red light pulse by a subsequent far red light pulse, is a property of photo responses regulated by the plant photoreceptor phytochrome B. Plants use photoreceptors to sense photo signal and to adapt and modify their morphological and physiological properties. Phytochrome recognizes red light and far red light and plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The reversal responses of growth and fruiting characteristics were investigated to increase the yield of oriental melon (Cucumis Melo L. var. Kumsargakieuncheon) by means of controlling light quality in a plastic house. Red (R:660nm) and far red (FR:730nm) lights were subsequently irradiated on the whole stems and leaves of the oriental melon plant during growing periods, using red and far red LEDs as light sources, from 9:00 PM daily for 15 minutes. The intensities of R and FR light were 0.322-0.430 μmol m-2s-1 and 0.250-0.366 μmol m-2s-1, respectively. Compared to R light irradiation, combination of R and FR light irradiation increased the length of internode, number of axillary stems, number of female flowers, and fruit number of oriental melons. The results of treatment with R were similar to R-FR-R light irradiation in terms of length of internode, number of axillary stems, number of female flowers, and number of fruits. When FR treatment was considered, R-FR and R-FR-R-FR light irradiation had similarities in responses. These reversal responses revealed that oriental melon showed a photoreversibility of growth characteristics, flowering, and fruiting.

    CONCLUSION:

    These results suggested the possibility of phytochrome regulation of female flower formation and fruiting in oriental melon. The fruit weight of the oriental melon was the heaviest with the R light irradiation, while the number of fruits was the highest with the FR light. With the FR light irradiation, the fruit weight was not significantly higher compared to that of the control. Meanwhile, the yield of oriental melon fruits increased by 28-36% according to the intensities of the FR light due to the increases of the number of fruits.

  • Equipment Development for Inorganic-Compound Concentration Measurement in a Hydroponic Culture Solution

    Jeong-Wook Heo, Kyeong-Hun Park, Seung-Gil Hong, Jae-Su Lee, Jeong-Hyun Baek, Jong-Taek Park, Seung-Kee Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 319-326

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.38
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    BACKGROUND:

    Measurement equipment was developed for inorganic nutrient concentration inside the hydroponic culture medium with several macro- and micro compositions, and applied for measuring the compositions of conventional medium.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Before the equipment development, sonicator and heater were utilized to control temperature around of the module mixing with color reagents and target samples among the inorganic compositions. The measurement module and multi-sampler were also manufactured based on the COMS (Complementary Metal–Oxide Semiconductor) and installed inside the measurement equipment. Concentration of standard solution, value measured by the equipment, standard deviation or measured average value were used for estimating the accuracy and average recall of the equipment. Yamazaki solutions with EC of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 dS/m were offered to confirm the equipment accuracy and standard error.

    CONCLUSION:

    It was suggested that the developed equipment could be automatically applied for measurement with accuracy of over 96% and standard errors of less than 5% on 12 macro- and micro compositions such as a NO3-N, PO43- or Fe.

  • Annual Changes of Soil Salinity of the Saemangeum Reclaimed Tide Land during Last 10 Years

    Jin-Hee Ryu, Yang-Yeol Oh, Su-Hwan Lee, Kyung-Do Lee, Young-Joo Kim / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 327-333

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.39
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    BACKGROUND:

    Through Saemangeum development project, 283 ㎢ of new land is planned to be created and the reclaimed land of 89.7 ㎢ will be used as agricultural land. Therefore, monitoring of soil salinity is required to evaluate the suitability of the land for agricultural purposes.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    We investigated changes of soil physico-chemical properties, including electric conductivity (EC), of the Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land (1,195 ha) from 2008 to 2017 to obtain basic data for suitable soil management of the Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land. Soil samples were collected from the sites spaced 200 meters apart from each other. Soil analysis results showed that average soil EC was 14.5 dS m-1 in 2008, and decreased to 6.5 dS m-1 in 2014 and to 0.9 dS m-1 in 2017. Accordingly, the soil area below soil EC 4.7 dS m-1 (accepted as farmable soil salinity) increased; 25.0% in 2008, 54.3% in 2014, and 96.9% in 2017. The annual decrease in soil EC was described as y = -1.5756x + 14.6 (R2= 0.96), where y = soil EC and x = elapsed years since 2008.

    CONCLUSION:

    The soil salinity have decreased to a level for cultivation of most edible crops. However, since the soil chemical properties, such as soil organic matter were inadequate for the cultivation of crops, it was suggested that management of soil fertility would be important for efficient agricultural use of Saemangeum reclaimed land.

  • Estimation and Comparison of Carbon Uptake in Rice Paddy, Dry Cropland and Grove in South Korea using Eddy Covariance Flux Data

    Jina Hur, Kyo-Moon Shim, ByeongTae Lee, Yongseok Kim, Sera Jo / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 334-342

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.40
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    BACKGROUND:

    To quantify carbon exchange at agricultural ecosystems in South Korea, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at three croplands including a rice paddy, a bean field and an apple orchard was measured on the basis of the eddy covariance technique.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    NEE of CO2 during the growing season (June to September) averaged over the recent two years (2018-2019) was the highest at rice (-4.49 g C m-2 day-1), followed by the bean (-3.12 g C m-2 day-1) and apple (-0.93 g C m-2 day-1). The diurnal variation of NEE was the highest at the rice, while the seasonal variation of it was the highest at the bean than others. In terms of yearly variation, the rice paddy and the bean field absorbed more CO2 in 2019 compared to 2018, while the apple orchard absorbed less.

    CONCLUSION:

    Our results confirmed that these croplands consistently acted as net sinks for CO2 during the growing season because an amount of CO2 uptake from photosynthesis was larger than one of its emissions from respiration. The quantification of net CO2 exchange at agricultural ecosystems may help to better understand the local carbon cycle over various time scales.

  • Microbiological Quality and Antibiotic Susceptibility of E. coli Isolated from Agricultural Water in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces

    Nagendran Rajalingam, Songyi Choi, Se-Ri Kim, Injun Hwang, Daesoo Park, Hyobeen Chae, Eunsun Kim, Jae-Hyun Yoon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 343-351

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.41
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    BACKGROUND:

    Irrigation water is known to be one of the major sources of bacterial contamination in agricultural products. In addition, anti-microbial resistance (AMR) bacteria in food products possess serious threat to humans. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of foodborne bacteria in irrigation water and evaluating their anti-microbial susceptibility.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Surface water (n = 66 sites) and groundwater (n = 40 sites) samples were collected from the Gyeongi and Gangwon provinces of South Korea during April, July, and October 2019. To evaluate the safety of water, fecal indicators (Escherichia coli) and foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes) were examined. E. coli isolates from water were further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using VITEK2 system. Overall, detection rate of foodborne pathogens in July was highest among three months. The prevalence of pathogenic E. coli (24%), Salmonella (3%), and L. monocytogenes (3%) was higher in surface water, while only one ground water site was contained with pathogenic E. coli (2.5%). Of the 343 E. coli isolates, 22.7% isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials (ampicillin (18.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.0%), and ciprofloxacin (6.7%)).

    CONCLUSION:

    To enhance the safety of agricultural products, it is necessary to frequently monitor the microbial quality of water.

  • Effect of the Nutritive Components of Mulberry Fruits From Two Cultivars Based on Irrigation Scheduling

    Sora Lee, Heon-Woong Kim, You-Young Jo, Hae-Yong Kwon, Wan-Taek Ju / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 352-359

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.42
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    BACKGROUND:

    The mulberry cultivars ‘Daeshim’ and ‘Shimgang’ were developed in RDA in 2014 and 2017, respectively. ‘Daeshim’ yields a fruit size bigger than that of other varieties and has a productivity of over 70%, whereas ‘Shimgang’ has a high yield and a special characterization against the mulberry popcorn disease. In our study, a compositional comparison of these popular cultivars in Korea was undertaken to explore the nutrient profiles of mulberry fruit and promote the development of the rich minerals and flavonoids in mulberry fruit as performing each other irrigation time.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    These two cultivars were collected from the Sericulture and Apiculture Division, RDA, in Korea to investigate their amounts, weights, minerals, and flavonoid content using each other instrument. After 6 h of irrigation treatment, the amount of fruit (kg/tree) from Daeshim and Shimgang increased by 17.5 and 15.2 kg/tree, respectively. The total flavonoid content from Daeshim and Shimgang was determined to be 132.9 mg and 36.3 mg, respectively, after the 6 h irrigation treatment.

    CONCLUSION:

    Appropriate irrigation treatment methods such as water scheduling and volume will help increase fruit quantities and farmer incomes. It would be interesting to conduct further in‐depth research on these fruits so that consumers can benefit from them as a food additive.

  • Effects of ATS and UREA on Flower Thinning and Fruit Growth in ‘Brightwell’ Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Hong Lim Kim, Mock-hee Lee, Ha-Kyoung Lee, Kyeong-Ho Chung, Han-Cheol Rhee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 360-367

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.43
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    BACKGROUND:

    The productivity and quality of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) greatly depend on the number of fruits in a plant. Especially, fruit set more than appropriate number negatively affects productivity and marketability due to the increased number of small fruits and delayed harvest time. This study was conducted to investigate proper timing and concentration for applying chemical blossom thinners such as ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) and UREA.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    ATS at 1.25% and 1.50%, and UREA at 6% and 8% were applied in four developmental stages, bud swell, pink bud, full bloom and petal fall. Fruit thinning rate was calculated based on the number of fruits harvested divided by that of flowers before applying blossom thinners. Ratios of leaf to flower and leaf to fruit were calculated based on the number of fully developed leaves in 25 days after full blossom divided by that of flowers or fruits, respectively. Chemical injury of leaves was investigated by calculating the number of leaves with chemical injury divided by the total number of leaves. Fruit thinning rates were 48% and 66% for UREA treatments at 6% and 8%, respectively, and 49% and 62% for ATS treatments at 1.25% and 1.50%, respectively, in the full bloom stage. In the petal fall stage, fruit thinning rates were 18% and 24% for UREA treatments at 6% and 8%, respectively, and 49% and 35% for ATS treatments at 1.25% and 1.50%, respectively. Leaf to fruit ratio (L/FR) increased by 109% and 188% compared to leaf to flower ratio in ATS treatments at 1.25% and 1.50%, respectively, and L/FR increased 93 and 196% in UREA treatments at 6% and 8%, respectively, in the full bloom stage. In the petal fall stage, leaf to fruit ratio increased by 60% to 100% in ATS treatments, but did not significantly differ from the control in UREA treatments. Fruit harvest was delayed in all treatments of all developmental stages except for 1.5% ATS and 6% UREA treatments at the petal fall stage, whose fruit harvest was two or three days faster than the control.

    CONCLUSION:

    The application of ATS and UREA for blossom thinning should be in the petal fall and full bloom stages for early and late harvest, respectively. Considering chemical injury, integrated harvesting and fruit size, however, it is appropriate to apply ATS at 1.5% in the petal fall stage to increase fruit productivity and quality in blueberry.

  • Development of a Simultaneous Analytical Method for Diquat, Paraquat and Chlormequat in Animal Products Using UPLC‐MS/MS

    Il Kyu Cho, Md. Musfiqur Rahman, Jae Ung Seol, Hyun Ho Noh, Hyeong-Wook Jo, Joon‐Kwan Moon / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 368-374

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.44
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    BACKGROUND:

    The residual analysis of polar pesticides has remained a challenge. It is even more difficult to simultaneously analyze multiple polar pesticides. Diquat, paraquat, and chlormequat are typical examples of highly polar pesticides. The existing methods for the analysis of diquat, paraquat and chlormequat are complex and time consuming. Therefore, a simple, quick and effective method was developed in the represent study for simultaneous analysis of diquat, paraquat and chlormequat in animal products, meat and fat using UPLC‐MS/MS.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Sample extraction was carried out using acidified acetonitrile and water and re‐extracted with acidified acetonitrile and combine the extracts followed by centrifugation. The extract was then cleaned up with a HLB cartridge after reconstitution with acidic acetonitrile and water. The method was validated in quintuplicate at three different concentrations. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.0015 and 0.005 mg/L, respectively. Matrix suppression effect was observed for all of the analytes. A seven point matrix matched calibration curve was constructed for each of the compound resulted excellent linearity with determination coefficients (R2) ≥ 0.991. Accuracy and precision of the method was calculated from the recovery and repeatability and ranged from 62.4 to 119.7% with relative standard deviation less than 18.8%.

    CONCLUSION:

    The recovery and repeatability of the developed method were in the acceptable range according to the Codex Alimentarius guideline. The developed method can be applied for the routine monitoring of diquat, paraquat, and chlormequat in animal products, meat and fat.

  • Uptake and Distribution of Bisphenol A and Its Metabolites in Lettuce Grown in Sandy Loam and Loam Soil

    Il Kyu Cho, Yong-Bae Jeon, Young Goun Oh, Md. Musfiqur Rahman, Won-Il Kim, Young-Deuk Lee / Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture / 2020 / v.39, no.4, 375-383

    https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2020.39.4.45
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    BACKGROUND:

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins. BPA is an endocrine disruptor. Residue of BPA in agricultural environments is a major concern. The objective of this study was to understand the characteristics of the uptake and distribution of BPA and its metabolites introduced into the agricultural environment to crops, and to use it as basic data for further research on reduction of BPA in agricultural products.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    This study established the analysis method of BPA and its metabolites in soil and crops, and estimated the intake of BPA and its metabolites from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in sandy loam and loam soil, which are representative soils in Korea. The two major metabolites of BPA were 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA). BPA, 4-HAP and 4-HBA have been analyzed by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These substances were detected in sandy loam and loam soil, indicating that certain portions of BPA were converted to 4-HAP and 4-HBA in the soil; however, it was observed that only 4-HBA migrated to lettuce through the roots into crops.

    CONCLUSION:

    The uptake residues showed the BPA and 4-HAP were not detected in lettuces grown on sandy loam (SL) and loam (L) soil treatments that were applied with of 10 ng/g, 50 ng/kg and 500 ng/g of BPA. However, the 4-HBA was detected at the level of 7 ng/g and 11 ng/g in the lettuce grown in sandy loam and loam soil that were treated with the 500 ng/g of BPA, respectively, while the 8 ng/g of 4-HBA was measured in the lettuce cultivated in the loam that was treated with 100 ng/g of BPA. This result presents that the BPA persisting in the soil of the pot was absorbed through the lettuce roots and then distributed in the lettuce leaves at the converted form of 4-HBA, what is the oxidative metabolite of BPA.