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Open Access Journal

Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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The Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture is an official publication of the Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture. It is published quarterly a year, March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31, and distributed to more than 700 members including individuals and institutions. The abbreviated title is ‘Korean J. Environ. Agric.’ The journal was launched on June 30 in 1982, the Print ISSN was issued on October 30, 1992 (Volume 11, No. 2) while the Online ISSN was issued on December 31, 2010 (Volume 29, No. 4). Whole document of a part of the articles in this journal are listed in the Google Scholar, Korea Citation Index (KCI) and ScienceCentral. The full text is freely available from http://www.korseaj.org.

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Current Issue 2019. Vol.38, Iss.4more..

  • Effect of Agricultural Practice and Soil Chemical Properties on Community-level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) of Soil Bacteria in Rice Fields During the Non-growing Season
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    BACKGROUND:

    Soil bacteria play important roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling during the non-growing season. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of soil management and chemical properties on the utilization of carbon sources by soil bacteria in paddy fields.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The Biolog EcoPlate was used for analyzing community-level carbon substrate utilization profiles of soil bacteria. Soils were collected from the following three types of areas: plain, interface and mountain areas, which were tested to investigate the topology effect. The results of canonical correspondence analysis and Kendall rank correlation analysis showed that soil C/N ratio and NH4+ influenced utilization of carbon sources by bacteria. The utilization of carbohydrates and complex carbon sources were positively correlated with NH4+ concentration. Cultivated paddy fields were compared with adjacent abandoned fields to investigate the impact of cultivation cessation. The level of utilization of putrescine was lower in abandoned fields than in cultivated fields. Monoculture fields were compared with double cropping fields cultivated with barley to investigate the impact of winter crop cultivation. Cropping system altered bacterial use of carbon sources, as reflected by the enhanced utilization of 2-hydroxy benzoic acid under monoculture conditions.

    CONCLUSION:

    These results show that soil use intensity and topological characteristics have a minimal impact on soil bacterial functioning in relation to carbon substrate utilization. Moreover, soil chemical properties were found to be important factors determining the physiological profile of the soil bacterial community in paddy fields.

  • Hydroponic Nutrient Solution and Light Quality Influence on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Growth from the Artificial Light Type of Plant Factory System
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    BACKGROUND:

    Hydroponics is one of the methods for evaluating plant production using the inorganic nutrient solutions, which is applied under the artificial light conditions of plant factory system. However, the application of the conventional inorganic nutrients for hydroponics caused several environmental problems: waste from culture mediums and high nitrate concentration in plants. Organic nutrients are generally irrigated as a supplementary fertilizer for plant growth promotion under field or greenhouse conditions. Hydroponic culture using organic nutrients derived from the agricultural by-products such as dumped stems, leaves or immature fruits is rarely considered in plant factory system. Effect of organic or conventional inorganic nutrient solutions on the growth and nutrient absorption pattern of green and red leaf lettuces was investigated in this experiment under fluorescent lamps (FL) and mixture Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs).

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Single solution of tomatoes (TJ) and kales (K) deriving from agricultural by-products including leaves or stems and its mixed solution (mixture ration 1:1) with conventional inorganic Yamazaki (Y) were supplied for hydroponics under the plant factory system. The Yamazaki solution was considered as a control. ‘Jeockchima’ and ‘Cheongchima’ lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as plant materials. The seedlings which developed 2~3 true leaves were grown under the light qualities of FL and mixed LED lights of blue plus red plus white of 1:2:1 mixture in energy ratio for 35 days. Light intensity of the light sources was controlled at 180 μ mol/m2/s on the culture bed. The single and mixture nutrient solutions of organic and/or inorganic components which controlled at 1.5 dS/m EC and 5.8 pH were regularly irrigated by the deep flow technique (DFT) system on the culture gutters. Number of unfolded leaves of the seedlings grown under the single or mixed nutrient solutions were significantly increased compared to the conventional Y treatment. Leaf extension of ‘Jeockchima’ under the mixture LED radiation condition was not affected by Y and YK or YTJ mixture treatments. SPAD value in ‘Jeockchima’ leaves exposed by FL under the YK mixture medium was approximately 45 % higher than under conventional Y treatment. Otherwise, the maximum SPAD value in the leaves of ‘Cheongchima’ seedlings was shown in YK treatment under the mixture LED lights. NO3-N contents in Y treatment treated with inorganic nutrient at the end of the experiment were up to 75% declined rather than increased over 60 % in the K and TJ organic treatment.

    CONCLUSION:

    Growth of the seedlings was affected by the mixture treatments of the organic and inorganic solutions, although similar or lower dry weight was recorded than in the inorganic treatment Y under the plant factory system. Treatment Y containing the highest NO3-N content among the considered nutrients influenced growth increment of the seedlings comparing to the other nutrients. However effect of the higher NO3-N content in the seedling growth was different according to the light qualities considered in the experiment as shown in leaf expansion, pigmentation or dry weight promotion under the single or mixed nutrients.

  • Effect of Incorporation of Hairy Vetch on Nitrous Oxide Emission from Soils Cultivated with Maize
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    BACKGROUND:

    Impact of incorporating hairy vetch into soil on mitigating nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from maize field in South Korea has not been investigated, whereas impacts on soil properties and nutrients for crops have been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine N2O emission from upland soil incorporated with hairy vetch for one year in maize field.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Hairy vetch was grown in an upland soil from November, 2017 to May, 2018 and incorporated into soil on May 25 of 2018. Control and conventional treatment (NPK) were included for comparison. Gas samples were collected weekly for a year to examine N2O emissions from the soil. Chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer stimulated N2O emission in short term resulting in the greatest cumulative N2O emission in NPK (6.72 kg N2O ha-1) compared to the control (4.04 kg N2O ha-1) and hairy vetch-incorporated field (5.43 kg N2O ha-1), and the greatest yield of maize from NPK, because total N input was much greater by NPK (186 N kg ha-1) than by hairy vetch (81.6 N kg ha-1).

    CONCLUSION:

    Incorporation of hairy vetch reduced N2O emissions from the maize compared to the NPK–treated field. However, further research on improving crop productivity with incorporation of hairy vetch is needed.

  • Effect of Weathering of Bottom Ash on Mitigation of Green House Gases Emission from Upland Soil
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    BACKGROUND:

    Weathering of bottom ash (BA) might induce change of its surface texture and pH and affect physical and chemical properties of soil associated with greenhouse gas emission, when it is applied to the arable soil. This study was conducted to determine effect of weathering of BA in mitigating emission of greenhouse gases from upland soil.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    In a field experiment, methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted from the soil was periodically monitored using closed chamber. Three month-weathered BA and non-weathered BA were applied to an upland soil at the rates of 0, 200 Mg ha-1. Maize (Zea mays L.) was grown from July 1st to Oct 8th in 2018. Both BAs did not affect cumulative CH4 emission. Cumulative CO2 emission were 23.1, 19.8, and 18.8 Mg/ha/100days and cumulative N2O emission were 35.8, 20.9, and 17.7 kg/ha/100days for the control, non-weathered BA, and weathered BA, respectively. Weathering of BA did not decrease emission of greenhouse gases significantly, compared to the weathered BA in this study. In addition, both BAs did not decrease biomass yields of maize.

    CONCLUSION:

    BA might be a good soil amendment to mitigate emissions of CO2 and N2O from arable soil without adverse effect on crop productivity.

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