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Open Access Journal

Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture

p-ISSN 1225-3537
e-ISSN 2233-4173

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The Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture is an official publication of the Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture. It is published quarterly a year, March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31, and distributed to more than 700 members including individuals and institutions. The abbreviated title is ‘Korean J. Environ. Agric.’ The journal was launched on June 30 in 1982, the Print ISSN was issued on October 30, 1992 (Volume 11, No. 2) while the Online ISSN was issued on December 31, 2010 (Volume 29, No. 4). Whole document of a part of the articles in this journal are listed in the Google Scholar, Korea Citation Index (KCI) and ScienceCentral. The full text is freely available from http://www.korseaj.org.

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Current Issue 2017. Vol.36, Iss.2more..

  • Effects of Alternative Crops Cultivation on Soil Physico-chemical Characteristics and Crop Yield in Paddy Fields
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    BACKGROUND:

    Cultivation of alternative crops in paddy fields is necessary because of the decrease in rice consumption and the increase in excess stock of rice. The studywas conducted to investigate the effects of alternative crops cultivation in paddy fields on soil physico-chemical characteristics and crop yield.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Soybean (Glycine max), red-clover (Trifolium pratense), and water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) were selected for alternative crops in the first and/or second year and ricewas planted in the third year.When alternative cropswere cultivated in the previous year, soil bulk density, soil hardness, and water content were lower than those for rice cultivation. Water-depth decreasing rate and aggregate content were greater for the upland-upland-paddy cropping system than upland-paddy-paddy cropping system. Cultivation of red-clover andwater convolvulus for two years resulted in the high soil organic matter content. In the third year, available phosphate, exchangeable potassium, and soil cation exchange capacity were relatively high when soybean was cultivated in the previous year. In the first year, water convolvulus cultivation showed greater productivity than red-clover cultivation while the opposite pattern was found in the second year. Rice yield in the third year was greater for soybean or red-clover as a previous crop than for water convolvulus as a previous crop.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results suggest that cultivation of alternative crops in paddy fields can improve soil physical properties including bulk density, hardness, water content, and aggregate content as well as rice productivity.

  • Decreases Nitrous Oxide Emission and Increase Soil Carbon via Carbonized Biomass Application of Orchard Soil
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    BACKGROUND:

    Carbonized biomass is a carbon-rich solid product obtained by the pyrolysis of biomass. It has been suggested to mitigate climate change through increased carbon storage and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. The objective of this studywas to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil after carbonized biomass addition.

    METHODSANDRESULTS:

    The carbonized biomasswas made froma pyrolyzer, which a reactorwas operated about 400~500 for 5 hours. The ℃ treatmentswere consisted of a control without input of carbonized biomass and two levels of carbonized biomass inputs as 6.06Mg/ha for CB-1 and 12.12 Mg/ha for CB-2. Emissions of CO2 and N2O from orchard soil were determined using closed chamber for 13 weeks at 25℃of incubation temperature. Itwas shown that the cumulative CO2 were 209.4 g CO2/m2 for CB-1, 206.4 g CO2/m2 for CB-2 and 214.5 g CO2/m2 for the control after experimental periods. The cumulative CO2 emission was similar in carbonized biomass input treatment compared to the control. Itwas appeared that cumulativeN2Oemissions were 4,478 mg N2O/m2 for control, 3,227 mg N2O/m2 for CB-1 and 2,324 mg N2O/m2 for CB-2 at the end of experiment. Cumulative N2Oemission contents significantly decreased with increasing the carbonized biomass input.

    CONCLUSION:

    Consequently the carbonized biomass frombyproducts such as pear branch residue could suppress the soil N2O emission. The results fromthe study imply that carbonized biomass can be utilized to reduce greenhouse gas emission from the orchard field.

  • Sediment Toxicity Assessment of Pesticides using Chironomus riparius Acute and Chronic Effect
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    BACKGROUND:

    Pesticides is exposed in an aquatic environment and effected to benthic animals. Especially, sediment-associated pesticides is required for determination of sediment toxicity on aquatic organisms. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of six pesticides (chlorfluazuron, difenoconazole, dithianon, flufenoxuron, flutianil, pendimethalin) on Chironomus riparius in aquatic ecosystems.

    METHODSANDRESULTS:

    Chlorfluazuron, difenoconazole, dithianon, flufenoxuron, flutianil and pendimethalin were used as a model compounds, which have a sediment-associated potential (Koc>3). Acute and chronic toxicity tests on Chironomus riparius were performed at six concentrations of each pesticidewith four replicates of each based onOECDtest guideline 235 and 218. The calculated 48-h EC50 values of chlorfluazuron, flutianil, pendimethalin, difenoconazole, dithianon and flufenoxuron were 6.72, 2.55, 2.27, 0.77, 0.30 and 0.11 mg/L, respectively. Flufenoxuronwas the lowest 48-h EC50 value in this study. TheNoObserved EffectiveConcentration (NOEC) and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) of flufenoxuron for Chironomus riparius in 28-days test were 30 and 60 μg/kg, respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    Pesticides of the sediment-associated have the potential effect for Chironomus riparius in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, sediment toxicity assessment of these pesticides should be further investigated to evaluate the impact to benthic organisms.

  • Comparison of Flavonoid Characteristics between Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Cultivated in Korea using UPLC-DAD-QTOF/MS
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    BACKGROUND:

    The objective of this study was to identify and compare the main phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic acids) in blueberry and black raspberry cultivated in Korea using ultra-performance liquid chromatography –diode array detection–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF/MS).

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    Twenty-nine flavonoids were identified by comparison of ultraviolet and mass spectra with data in a chemical library and published data. Blueberry contained flavonols including kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, and syringetin aglycones. Isorhamnetin 3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol 3-O-(6''-Oacetyl) glucoside, quercetin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (avicularin), quercetin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl) glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-robinobiosidewere detected for the first time in blueberry. The flavonoids in raspberry consisted of quercetin aglycone and its glycosides. The mean total flavonoid content in blueberry [143.0mg/100 g dryweight (DW)]was 1.5-times that in raspberry (95.4mg/100 gDW). The most abundant flavonoid in blueberry was quercetin 3-O-galactoside (hyperoside, up to 76.1 mg/100 g DW) and that in raspberry was quercetin 3-O-glucuronide (miquelianin, up to 55.5 mg/100 g DW). Miquelianin was not detected in blueberry.

    CONCLUSION:

    Flavonol glycosides were the main flavonoids in blueberry and black raspberry cultivated in Korea. The composition and contents of flavonoids differed between blueberry and black raspberry, andmay be affected by the cultivar and cultivation conditions.

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